September 7, 2011

Sample Interaction between Epidemiology and Laboratory Sciences in the Study of Mother-to-Child Transmissible Infectious Diseases


Interaction between Epidemiology and Laboratory Sciences in the Study of Mother-to-Child Transmissible Infectious Diseases

According to various medical studies, perinatal infections are bacterial or viral illnesses that can pass on from a mother to her baby. It is either while the baby is in the uterus; or during the delivery process. Maternal infection leads to complications during child birth. And, according to medical experts, most of the transmissible infectious diseases are acquired from sexual intercourses. Furthermore, transmission of these infectious diseases occurs during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as it may progress up to the time that the mother is going to breastfeed the baby. The infectious agent can be found in mother’s milk. Relatively, human beings are infected with various diseases through contaminated food, water, blood transfusion of infected blood, organ transplantation or from mother to fetus inside the placenta. Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a single parasite called “Toxoplasma Gondili”. If the woman or mother is pregnant, the infection can be transmitted from her to the baby. In this connection, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among Indian women is growing popularly in India nowadays. According to the report, there are major ways on how the disease is transmitted; it is through indigestive uncooked meat which contains tissue cysts. Through ingesting food and water, this also contaminated with cysts from infected cat faeces. Placental infections among women occurs when an infected mother acquires infection during pregnancy. In fact, there is less that 0.1 % of the general population becomes infected by transplantation of organs and blood transfusion. On the other hand, Rubella, this is commonly known as German measles; is an infectious disease on the skin and lymph nodes. Rubella infection of the mother during pregnancy can pass through the placenta; into the developing fetus in the womb. This may cause serious birth deformities such as hear abnormalities, mental retardation, blindness and deafness of the child. (http://www.medicinenet.com/toxoplasmosis/article.htm)

Based on the research, Chlamydia is the most common infectious disease associated with sexually transmitted disease in the United States that causes 4 million infections among mothers and infants every year. Majority of women with Chlamydia infection do not experience any symptoms. As a result, there are many pregnancy problems that it brings such as it causes inflammatory disease in the pelvic, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. As a matter of fact, this infection can cause premature rupture of the membranes and early labor. This infection can be passing through the infant during the delivery; at the same time it causes eye infection and pneumonia to the baby. Additionally, Cytomegalovirus, is also an infectious disease in the herpes virus family; which acquired through saliva, urine and other body fluids contacts. This infection causes the mother to have swollen lymp glands, fever and fatigue. While, infants can be infected with this when the baby is still in the womb of the mother. It does not show any symptoms that are the reason that many babies are born with serious complications in a year. And, the worst thing, this infection can cause mental retardation, blindness, deafness and epilepsy among infants. The last, but not the least, is the Syphilis; this is a sexually transmitted bacterium that infects both the mother and infant during pregnancy until giving birth. There are about 50 percent of infants born to mothers with syphilis. Most of the babies are born premature, and die shortly after birth. However, there are some infants who still survive in delivery, but they may acquire the disease after two years of life. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_disease)

Subsequently, based on the medical record, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections s among mothers and infants depend on the causative infection agent that attacks the body. Nonetheless, there is no treatment available for Rubella and Cytomegalovirus Infections. And, the only thing that the doctors recommend for the mother is to have immune globulin injection to boost her immune system in fighting the virus. In some cases, termination of pregnancy is advised, to avoid further complications. In contrast, Chlamydia can be treated with oral erythromycin for seven days; the same thing goes with Syphilis, an appropriate dosage of penicillin can be given to mothers during pregnancy. Therefore, it is recommended to the pregnant women out there to be extra cautious on their health condition, especially during pregnancy. Remember, early detection and medical treatment of these infections caused by sexually transmissible diseases can reduce the perinatal transmission during childbirth. Similarly, full awareness of safe sex is very vital to have a healthy family. (http://www.healthofchildren.com/P/Perinatal-Infection.html)

References:

http://www.medicinenet.com/toxoplasmosis/article.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_disease

http://www.healthofchildren.com/P/Perinatal-Infection.html

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