May 25, 2016

Implications of Telecommunication commitments of Pakistan in WTO/GATT

Some people do not see international trade fav...
Some people do not see international trade favourably: here a child protests against the WTO in Jakarta. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Background of the Study
The birth of the World Trade Organization (WTO) eleven years ago was to serve the purpose of having a formal entity with extensive responsibility in international economic affairs.  Sampson, (2001) stated that the WTO is undeniably a major player in the field of global governance, and its rules and processes will profoundly affect the future economic and political orientation of its member-countries. The WTO was established to perform very significant functions: freer trade among member-countries, a conventional set of rules in the conduct of global trade transactions and as a mediator between international trade conflicts.
            The humongous responsibility put upon the organization has been faced with criticisms over the years.  Critics claim that the aim of WTO to liberalize trade and foster economic prosperity do not directly affect the lives of ordinary people.  It is said to result to more opportunities for rich countries to become richer.  Many are also arguing that WTO treaties and decisions are unfair and are sided toward wealthy nations and powerful international corporations.
On the other hand, the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), an international organization promoting the reduction of international trade barriers, contains no explicit provisions on developing countries. However, concerns on challenges faced in the international trade were voiced out. One of which is the sustainable increase in income and output that is deemed to be brought by increase in industrialization. Some countries hold the idea that the liberal trade policies will not foster industrialization and development due to the patterns that prevails in the international specialization (Michalopoulos, 2001).
            From this, WTO/GATT as international trading organisations that helps developing nations in trading issues also needs a perfect telecommunication system in disseminating information and Pakistan was giving their commitment.  With this, the purpose of the study is to identify the Pakistan Telecommunication commitments in WTO or GATT. This is done by analysing data acquired from them through desk researches and survey questionnaires that contain questions related with the topic. Another purpose of the paper is to be able to determine the implications of Telecommunication commitments of Pakistan to the nation members of WTO and GATT.

Statement of the Problem
            In order to complete the goals of this particular academic activity as well as to set the objectives of the study, the following research questions will be presented and discussed in the entirety of the research paper focusing on the implications of Telecommunication commitments of Pakistan in WTO/GATT.
  1. What is the role of the Telecommunication commitments of Pakistan in WTO/GATT?
  2. What are the impacts of the Telecommunication commitments of Pakistan in WTO/GATT in the entire global communication system?
  3. How do WTO/GATT organisations benefit from the Telecommunication commitments of Pakistan?
  4. What are the underlying issues on security policies as well as individual privacy standards that influence the Telecommunication commitments of Pakistan in WTO/GATT?

Overview of Methodology
            This particular research activity will be conducted using the guidelines of both the quantitative and the qualitative research approaches. In this light, the research study will make use of the survey and the interview techniques as methods for the data gathering activities. The qualitative aspect of researcher will be used in order to provide in-depth discussion regarding the concept of technology as well as its implications of the Telecommunication commitments of Pakistan in WTO/GATT. Meanwhile, the quantitative part of the research activity will make possible the quantification of concepts and ideas that are otherwise immeasurable within the qualitative paradigm. The utilisation of both the quantitative and the qualitative research approaches will be used to provide holistic and comprehensive understanding on the selected research topic. Therefore, discussions will reflect the use of both these academic research approaches.

Creswell, J.W. 1994, Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
Michalopoulos, C, 2001, ‘Developing Countries in the WTO’, New York.
Sampson, G. (2001). The Role of the World Trade Organization in Global Governance. New York: United Nations University Press.

Proposal: Micro Payments and Self Help Groups (SHG)

Mobile Bank-SHG Linkage, Uttar Pradesh, India
Mobile Bank-SHG Linkage, Uttar Pradesh, India (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Proposal: Micro Payments and Self Help Groups (SHG)
For organisations practicing Micro Payments and Self Help Groups (SHG), Debt collection is their integral part of the credit management unit that secures payments from the debtor. Actually, a credit management unit usually handles these transactions where before, most banks perform this activity by hiring their own debts collection agent. With the advent of the business phenomenon of outsourcing during the early 1990s, whose foremost aim is to cut costs of doing business, a sizeable number of collection agencies have surfaced to provide the banks with the service of debt recovery. Whichever way the banks choose to collect the debts owed to them, problems arise which require the intelligent planning of the credit management unit of the institution. Bass (1998, p.93), in his book ‘Credit Management’, stated that ‘Effective collections do not just happen. They are the result of planning.’ Every business, should have a system for chasing debt payments, and an effective system starts with planning it. The debt collection plan of contemporary credit management units is the place to start if debt collection is to obtain a semblance of organization.
Actually, there are organisation Micro Payments and Self Help Groups (SHG) suffering from the growing number of nonpayers which has made the task of debt collection more difficult than it was in the past. Additionally, the increase in the intensity of competition among banking and other financial institutions to acquire clients has made this concern more severe. This project is a closer look at those concerns in an attempt to shed light on issue and the identification of present and potential strategies for minimizing or eliminating the instance of defaulters, as well as a review of the debts collection literature.
Research Questions and Objectives
The Objectives of the Project are:
Ø  Indicate the obligation of the debtors
Ø  Indicate the right of the Micro Payments and Self Help Groups (SHG) organisation to chasing/recover the debt
Ø  List the different action can take to chasing/recover the debt
Ø  Describe the problem of lower cash flow level
Ø  What’s the payment methods adopted currently
Ø  Why the debtors not paying the management fee
Ø  Identify the problem on payment method and weakness in credit control
Ø  Evaluate the payment methods is acceptable
Ø  Analysis the problem and find out the possible solution, suggest the necessary action and procedure the company should take to recover debt and improve its efficiency of debtor management
Ø  Evaluate the effectiveness on the possible solution

Significance of the Study
This project stemmed from the need of businesses to deal with the increasing number of defaulters in the debt collection system in order to facilitate better financial management. There is certainly the need to know of alternatives to current debt collection systems to better facilitate said activity of organizations. The target of this research project is to assist in the determination of effective and efficient debt collection system strategies to implement within credit institutions, so that players of the industry could better handle their credit collection efforts for their own organizational benefits. Clients and company resources will then be better managed, with excellent customer relationship management on one hand, and more effective and efficient internal systems on the other.

This project started with the detected need to analyze the debt collection systems of organisation practicing Micro Payments and Self Help Groups (SHG), as they have lately been subject to various complications, legally and otherwise. The formulation of objectives and determination of who would benefit from project completion then followed. The research design chosen utilizes the explanatory methods in describing the variables wherein the data, situations, or other facts collected will be explained or correlated with other data. It is especially useful when conducting a study wherein the data are immeasurable, such as feelings, beliefs, thoughts, and others (Mays & Pope, 2000). Basically, this study utilizes the descriptive research method, which uses surveys, interviews and observation. With this particular procedure, there is a high possibility that the study would be well-situated and quick. Actually, the descriptive type of research could also advise unanticipated assumptions. Nevertheless, it would be very stiff to rule out another explanation and especially deduce causations. In accordance to this, this kind of research approach is practical and reliable to use in this paper. The researcher actually chosen to use this kind of research bearing in mind the desire of the researcher to get first hand information from the interviewees so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study.
For this study, the researcher will interview respondents from the internal staff of organisations practicing Micro Payments and Self Help Groups (SHG) and will conduct surveys to their debtors/creditors. With regards to the survey results, it will involve categorical or numerical data or data that can be use for analysis to help the researcher answer the research questions. This part is more on quantitative information analysis. Actually, Saunders, Lewis,& Thornhill, (2004), defined quantitative as a type of empirical knowledge. Qualitative data are described in expressions of quality (Saunders et al, 2004). Apparently, qualitative information is the converse of quantitative, which more precisely describes data in terms of quantity (that is, using 'formal' numerical measurement). This data reflects to the information that will be gathered from interview.

Bass, R. (1998). Credit Management. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.
Mays, N. & Pope, C. (2000). Qualitative Research in Health Care. BMJ Bookshop. Accessed 26 May, 2008. From
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students. 3rd Ed. London: Prentice Hall Financial Times.

Parents and Teacher Contribution Towards the Study of English Language in Primary School in Nigeria

School children in Tamil Nadu
School children in Tamil Nadu (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Betonwerksteinskulptur "Lehrer-Student&qu...
Betonwerksteinskulptur "Lehrer-Student" von Reinhard Schmidt in Rostock (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Parents and Teacher Contribution Towards the Study of English Language in Primary School in Nigeria
According to a Malayan proverb, "Melentur bulah semasa masih rebung". In English, it means "To bend the bamboo start with the shoot". Young children learn best in an environment which provides them with an interactive role in the learning process. And this should start in the early years of a child. For this are the critical years when he starts to gain enough knowledge he will need as he grows.
Teachers, therefore have an important role in the learning process of these individuals. However, the traditional approach which is dominant in Nigeria, does not assist the teachers in constructing a learning environment appropriate to the needs and learning styles of young children. New strategies and developments in some areas therefore, are needed to address the certain issue.
Aside from the teachers role in honing the learning capabilities of children, their parents are also playing vital roles. The parents are considered as the first teacher, who taught their children about their primary knowledge. On the other hand, the teachers are considered as the second parents who look for their students and supplement additional knowledge that will be needed in the future.
In childhood education parents play significant role especially in developing the reading skills of their children.  In this stage, parents give education to their children that contains holistic and stresses the physical, cognitive, social and emotional education (Pedersen, & Willians, 2004). Basically, early childhood educators can be the parents, caregivers and teachers, and in which the parents play a significant role in the process of early childhood education (Pedersen, & Willians, 2004). Actually, the child’s development contains various developmental domains such as physical development, perception and sensory development, communication and language development, cognitive development, emotional development and social development (Wenglinsky, 2000).
As part of educating children, secondary language learning and acquisition is one of the most important subjects to be learned by children. Particularly, English because it is considered as the global language. With this, this study will focus on analyzing the contribution and role of parents and teachers in the study of English Language in primary schools in Nigeria.

Research Question
            The following questions will serve as the guideline for the author during the investigation process:
  1. How do parents and teachers interact with each other regarding the learning process and performance of individual students?
  2. How does parents and teachers contribute to the English language study of students from Nigerian primary school?
  3. What is the current status of English learning process in Primary School in Nigeria?

Aims and Objectives
            The aim of this research is to determine the role of parents and teachers in educating their children especially in teaching the English language. Although one of the ways this research will be run is through subjective interpretation, objectives are also needed as it will also utilize quantitative researched. The following objectives will be addressed in the study:
Ø  Identify the significant role of  parents and teachers teaching the English language to the children.
Ø  Identify the educational needs of the children in their early education.
Ø  Identify the significant impact of parents as teachers in teaching the English language of their children.
Ø  Identify the current instructions used in by parents and teachers in helping their children learn the English language.

This study will be a significant endeavor in promoting educational concerns such as the role of parents in developing the reading capabilities of their children. This study will be beneficial to not only to parents and children but also to the teachers. By understanding the needs of the students and the benefits of quality education especially in learning English, these practitioners will be assured of a larger progress performance. Moreover, this research will provide recommendations on how to value students as they are taking a large part in the overall performance of the school quality education.
            This project will apply both qualitative and quantitative approach in order to support the data to be gathered via two types of data gathering method. This will help in order to study and analyze the topic in in-depth manner.
In essence, Guilford & Fruchter (1973) argued that in choosing sample sizes, the Slovin’s formula should be considered especially in the cases were the total population was impossible to gather. Therefore, in selecting the sample size, the Slovin’s formula was used. The Slovin’s formula is given as:
Data Gathering Method
            Survey questionnaire and interview will be implemented. Survey questionnaire will be disseminated through the respondents via mail and personal. 10% of each sampling group will be invited for interview.

Guilford, J.P. & Fruchter, B. Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education, 5th Edition (1973). New York: Mc Graw-Hill

Pedersen, S. & Willians, D. (2004). A Comparison of Assessment Practices and Their Effects on Learning and Motivation in a Student-Centered Learning Environment. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13(3), 1. 

Wenglinsky, H. (2000).  Teachers Who Learn, Kids Who Achieve: A Look at Schools With Model Professional Development. San Francisco, California: WestEd.

Proposed Thesis Title: The impact of Globalisation to the Development of Livelihood Programs in Rajasthan, India

English: Ladies of Rajasthan, India
English: Ladies of Rajasthan, India (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Research Proposal
Proposed Thesis Title: The impact of Globalisation to the Development of Livelihood Programs in Rajasthan, India

More often, the term globalisation is being perceived by these challenges.  Globalisation, has acquired considerable emotive force. Globalisation has its own meaning from different individuals.  For some, globalisation is a process that is beneficial, i.e. a key to the future world economic development and also inevitable and irreversible.  Others regard it with hospitality even fear, believing that it increases inequality within and between nations or organisations, threatens employment and living standards and thwarts social progress.  Globalisation has its own style of offering extensive opportunities for truly worldwide development but it can be seen that it s not progressing evenly.  Some nations or organisations are becoming integrated into the global economy faster than the others. Nations or organisations that have been able to integrate are seeing advance growth and reduced poverty. With the undying influence of globalisation to the world, there are many organisations that are striving to adjust with these influences. Thus this paper will tackle about globalisation, its benefits and costs, the key challenges that it posed to the development of livelihood projects in Rajasthan, India.

Statement of the Problem
Generally, the purpose of this study is to determine the effects of globalisation on the development of livelihood projects in Rajasthan, India. This study tries to answer the following queries:
  1. With reference to globalization effort of the government of India, do the development of livelihood projects in Rajasthan, India are affected?
  2. What are the variables that significantly affect the perception of the respondents regarding globalisation on the development of livelihood projects in Rajasthan, India?
  3. Does globalisation significantly affect the progress of livelihood projects in Rajasthan, India?
  4. What are the recommended solutions to the problems emerging in livelihood projects at Rajasthan, India in accordance to globalisation process?

Hypothesis of the Study
Based on the research questions the research project works out on the following null hypotheses:
1.            Globalisation has no significant effect to the progress and development of livelihood projects in Rajasthan, India.
2.            Respondents’ perception regarding globalisation has no significant relationship to the development of livelihood projects in Rajasthan, India.

Significance of the Study
Globalisation has basically collected a series of appraisals and criticisms from professionals in different fields. However, the most widely debated issue is the debate on whether globalisation is being used as a weapon of advertisement to dominate the weaker culture. For years, America’s aggressive advertisements have been criticised dictating the trend and behaviour of its recipients. Levitt (1993) predicted years ago the convergence of consumer tastes all over the globe, thus creating global markets for standardised products on a previously unimagined scale. This prediction gave the way for the recognition of the globalisation of advertising on a larger scale. As Domzal and Kernan (1993) said: “Prompted largely by Levitt's (1993) provocative paper, the past ten years have been witness to a lively debate - in both academic and corporate circles - concerning global advertising.”            
This study will provide information to business leaders regarding the effect of globalisation.  Knowing how the perceptions of the respondents regarding globalisation in the development of livelihood projects in India will assist business leaders and rural developer in establishing programs, policies, and development.

This paper will be based on qualitative research method. There are factors which stand to achieve from the use of qualitative research inquisition. Basically, researchers gain not only because of increased ease of use to pre-existing viewpoint and the contextually responsive nature of methodologies such as life history, but also for the reason that qualitative research methodology helps researchers address the "singularity of values" so ubiquitous in past research efforts and understand the nature of "intercontextual work (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill,  2003).

Domzal, Teressa J. and Kernan, Jerome B. (1993). Mirror, mirror: some       postmodern reflections on global advertising. In Journal of Advertising.      Volume: 22. Issue: 4. Page Number: 1+.
Levitt, T. (1993). “The globalisation of markets”. In Harvard Business Review,        Vol.61 No. 3, pp. 92-102.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students (3rd Ed.). London: Prentice Hall. 

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