August 28, 2008

Thesis Research Proposal on The Implementation of a Japanese philosophy – Kaizen

Abstract
 Japanese are known for their dedication on work and profession. They really value their time and use it appropriately.  They have been engage in the philosophy which they called Kaizen. This particular philosophy focuses on the continuous improvement of almost all aspects of life. It was applied in their workplace to continually improve all the functions of the business. 
 
Historical Background
  The Total Quality Management is a management strategy which aims for a better quality of the organizational process. Usually, such businesses and firms rely on this tool to gain more growth within the organization. Apparently, the use of the Total Quality Management is also applicable to the everyday life of each individual who is engage in several activities everyday. This certain strategy will help them practice the right management of their daily task to avoid cramming and delays.
 According to W. Edwards Deming, who was considered as the Father of modern quality management, Kaizen is part of the concept of TQM or Total Quality Management. Therefore, both imply time management and improvement of the daily life of an individual.

Objective
 The main objective of this paper is to come up with the probable strategy on how are things are improve with the use of the Total Quality Management. If the philosophy of Kaizen is applicable with the Japanese then why not with other nations. This simply means that it is possible to impose the philosophy through the everyday of an individual.
Technical Approach
 In this paper, the Japanese philosophy of kaizen will be analyzed internally through the use of SWOT Analysis. The SWOT Analysis means the Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats of a particular discussion that has to be in order to maintain the qualities and possible effects of the philosophy in the everyday lives of an individual. 
Bibliography (or References)
 
Kaizen. 2008. Online Encyclopedia.[Online]. Available at http://www.encygclopedia.com [accessed 6 August 2008]
 
SWOT. 2008. Online Encyclopedia.[Online]. Available at http://www.encygclopedia.com [accessed 6 August 2008]

Total Quality Management. 2008. Online Encyclopedia.[Online]. Available at http://www.encygclopedia.com [accessed 6 August 2008]

August 27, 2008

A Comparative Study of Economical Impacts and Disaster Management of Tsunami in Indonesia and Sri Lanka – Research Proposal

 

 

1.0 Title

            The working title of this research is initially drafted as – A Comparative Study of Economical Impacts and Disaster Management of Tsunami in Indonesia and Sri Lanka

2.0 Abstract

            This qualitative study will investigate the differences between Indonesia and Sri Lanka with respect to the economical impacts and disaster management of tsunami. In this proposal, how the economy and the lives of the people are affected will be investigated. As well, how the international organisations such as the UN, World Bank and International Red Cross contributed in the fast recovery of both countries will be also addressed.

3.0 Introduction

This paper discusses in detail the research proposal on the comparative study of Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In particular, the research will focus on the economical impacts and disaster management of tsunami. In this research proposal, the background, context and theme of the study are presented; the objectives of the study and the research statements are formulated. Here, vital concepts, questions and assumptions are stated. Finally, the scope and limitation of the study, methodology to be used and the significance of the research are discussed.

4.0 Statement of the problem

            The profound effects of the Indian Ocean earthquake resulting to tsunami is still widely felt today. Nonetheless, the extent of economical impact of such occurrence to two of the most affected countries is not known. How the economy of Indonesia and Sri Lanka is affected and its trickle down effects of the poorest of people living in the coastal area should be determined. Why the tsunami affects that much number of the people and communities are blamed on the inefficiency and the lacking disaster preparedness of both countries. There is also a vast of worldwide humanitarian responses but it also not known the rationale and for what specific purpose the aids are intended. Finally, the functions and responsibilities of the international organisations should be recognized and how they contribute t the recovery of Indonesia and Sri Lanka.  

5.0 Background to the problem

            An undersea earthquake which occurred on December 26, 2004 known as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was perceived to be the primary reason that triggered the series of tsunamis. With the epicenter located at the west cost of Sumatra, Indonesia, the earthquake-elicited tsunamis killed more than 225, 000 people in eleven countries and flooding coastal communities of its 30 meters high waves. Dubbed as the one of the deadliest natural disasters in history, the tsunamis hit a relatively high number of countries with Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand were the hardest hit.

            Many affected people and communities prompted a widespread humanitarian response especially for those communities that heavily depended on fishing as livelihood. For instance, the Sri Lankan artisanal fishery whereby fish baskets, fishing traps and spears are commonly used; industrial fishery, as the major economic activity, provides employment to about 250, 000 people. But for Sri Lanka and Indonesia, the estimated lost of job is 1 million. For Indonesia, the affected economies are housing, commerce, agriculture and fisheries and transport vehicles and services amounting to $2.8 billion (ADB, 2006).

            As such, the economical impacts of tsunamis are immense including the rapid growth and development of coastal areas, inhabitants, large fleet of ships and major port facilities, fishing industries and aqua cultural industries and canneries. However, for both Indonesia and Sri Lanka, these were obstructed by the risks posed by tsunamis such as flooding, contamination of drinking water, damaged aquatic life and loss of vital community infrastructure and livelihood (Ardalan et al). What had happened in 2004 calls for an effective disaster management which will include prevention and preparedness, hazard mitigation, emergency relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction. 

6.0 Project aims and objective

            The main purpose of this study is to investigate the economical implications and the disaster management of tsunami in two of the most affected countries, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In lieu with this, the study will address the following specific objectives

§         To determine the extent of the socio-economical impact of the 2004 tsunami to Indonesia and Sri Lanka

§         To distinguish the international humanitarian responses intended for Indonesia and Sri Lanka

§         To analyse how the 2004 tsunami affect the lives of Indonesian and Sri Lankan and the economy of both countries

§         To investigate the disaster management activities after the occurrence of the tsunami  

§         To identify the different tools and applications in terms of disaster management by Indonesian and Sri Lankan governments

§         To establish the role of international organisations such as World Bank, UN and International Red Cross

6.1 Research objectives

            The objectives of the research basically to conduct a comparative study of economical impacts between Indonesia and Sri Lanka; therefore determine disaster management process is more responsive. Based on this, the research will accomplish the following research objectives:

§         Provide a comprehensive discussion about the economical impact as well as disaster management of tsunami

§         Conduct a comparative study between Indonesia and Sri Lanka as the two hardest hit countries of the 2004 tsunami

§         Review related literatures on economical impacts and disaster management of tsunami and how it affects Indonesia and Sri Lanka

§         Assessment and evaluation of the economical impacts and disaster management of tsunami based on the experience of Indonesia and Sri Lanka

§         Contribute to the research and literature of tsunami and its economical impacts and the disaster management

6.2 Research questions

            To carry out the purpose of the study, the following research questions will be addressed.

1)     What are the socio-economical impacts of the tsunami to Indonesia? to Sri Lanka? How do they differ?

2)     What are the international humanitarian responses that both countries received?

3)     What had been the role of international organisations towards the full recovery of Indonesia and Sri Lanka?

4)     Generally, how does the tsunami affect the economy of Indonesia and Sri Lanka?

5)     How does the tsunami affect the lives of Indonesian? of Sri Lankan?

6)     Before and after the tsunami, what are the disaster management activities in Indonesia? in Sri Lanka?

7)     What are the different disaster management tools are in placed for Indonesia? for Sri Lanka?

6.3 Significant or justification

            The study will be a significant endeavor in promoting awareness on the dangers and risks of tsunamis and how to alert people to react proactively in case of tsunamis. The study will be helpful to both Indonesian and Sri Lankan government to religiously conduct, place and monitor the efficiency of disaster management as well as to communities currently living near the cost as the research could educate them on what they should do and what help are available when tsunami occurred. Moreover, this study will be an important contribution to a body of research concerning tsunami, economical impacts and disaster management. The research may also stumble upon new problems and hypotheses that require additional research. The study may also serve as a useful reference tool for future studies. Overall, it may help boosts the growth of disaster management research.

7.0 Research design

The research will be exploratory in nature. Exploratory research will enable the study to look at the problem in both descriptive and exploratory manner. It will look into the problem by exploring the views of different sets of respondents, as well as by exploring different literatures related with the study. It will also conduct experiment to observe the subjects, with the hope to find answers to the questions the study ask. This study will also employ qualitative research method because it will try to find and build theories that will explain the relationship of one variable with another variable through qualitative elements in research.  

In this qualitative study, In this study, primary and secondary research will be both incorporated. The reason for this is to be able to provide adequate discussion for the readers that will help them understand more about the issue and the different variables that involve with it. The primary data for the study will be represented by the survey results that will be acquired from the respondents. On the other hand, the literature reviews to be presented in the second chapter of the study will represent the secondary data of the study. Secondary sources of data will come from published articles from journals, theses and related studies.


Obstacles to Economic Growth: The Case of Indonesia Research Proposal

 

 

1.0  Title

The working title of this research initially drafted as Obstacles to Economic Growth: The Case of Indonesia

2.0  Background of the Research

Encyclopedia Britannica defines economic growth as the increase in the value of the goods and services produced by an economy which is conventionally measured by the real gross domestic product (real GDP). Growth is calculated in real terms for the purpose of netting out the effect of inflation on the price of the goods and services produced. Economic growth concerns long run as the increase in GDP is generally taken as an increase in the standard of living of the inhabitants.

One of the several Asian nations that has seen positive economic growth is Indonesia. Indonesia has a market-based economy wherein the government plays a vital role. The Indonesian government controls more than 164 state-owned enterprises and administers basic goods prices such as fuel, rice and electricity. Indonesian economy is consists of agriculture, livestock forestry and fishery; mining and quarrying; manufacturing; electricity, gas and water supply; construction; trade, hotel and restaurant; transportation and communication; finance, real estate and business services; and others.

On the other hand, the Indonesian economic growth remains modest from 2003 though the economy is performing better than expected. From the period of 2003 onwards, Indonesia experienced internal and external threat such as terrorism, separatism, the changing government and natural disasters. One of the factors that contribute to this condition is the dependence of the economy to private consumption and government expenditure as well as the slowness of non-oil manufacturing   

3.0  Statement of the Problem

The problem that will be investigated is the impediments to further economic growth of Indonesia and how to overcome such obstructions. How the recent waves of slow economic growth come about will be also addressed. In lieu with this, the study will answer the following research questions.

1)     How the Indonesian economy is performing recently? What are the major indicators of the positive economic growth for Indonesia?

2)     How the financial crisis in late 1990s, the tsunami and other crisis affect the current economic performance of Indonesia?

3)     What are the other factors that affect the economic growth of the country politically, socially and legally?

4)      How does the Indonesian government respond to the economic impediments? What strategies are implemented?

4.0  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to determine the obstacles to economic growth in Indonesia and to draw conclusions on strategies implemented in overcoming such blockages. The following specific objectives will be addressed:

§         To evaluate the economic performance of Indonesia and identify the indicators of positive economic growth

§         To analyse how the most recent past of economic crisis affect the present economic performance

§         To distinguish the political, social and legal factors which serve as obstruction to further economic growth

§         To explore how the Indonesian government is doing as a response to economic growth hindrances

5.0  Research Methodology

The study will explore the problem in an interpretivist view, using exploratory research strategy because it aims to know more about the phenomenon of economic growth in Indonesia and the obstacles to acquiring higher growth. Exploratory research will enable the study to look at the problem in both descriptive and exploratory manner. It will look into the problem by exploring the views of different sets of respondents, as well as by exploring different literatures related with the study.

In this study, primary and secondary research will be both incorporated. The reason for this is to be able to provide adequate discussion for the readers that will help them understand more about the issue and the different variables that involve with it. The primary data for the study will be represented by the survey results that will be acquired from the respondents. On the other hand, the literature reviews to be presented in the second chapter of the study will represent the secondary data of the study. Secondary sources of data will come from published articles from economic and commerce journals, theses and related studies.

Case study method will be also employed in the study. A case study is a "strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence."

 

 


Health Impacts of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: An Empirical Study of Sydney Research Proposal

 

 

1.0  Background of the Study

An average person inhales about 20, 000 liters of air everyday, exposing to risk of dangerous chemicals in air each time human breathe. Air pollution contains contaminants in the atmosphere and these dangerous substances could be either in the form of gases or particles. Air pollution has diverse and numerous effects. It can have serious consequences for the health as well as severely affect the natural ecosystems. Today, some areas suffer more than others from air pollution. Two of the main reasons are the large numbers of automobiles and/or the utilisation of coal in great quantities (Think Quest).Seemingly, motor vehicle-related air pollution is an inescapable reality for urban settlers. In Sydney, for instance, motor vehicles is one of major source of toxic and carcinogenic air pollutants as motor vehicles contribute approximately 80% of nitrogen oxide to the atmosphere. Further, the two prime pollution problems in Sydney are photochemical smog and particle pollution. Particle pollution is a brown haze and is composed of airborne particles of which 24% are from motor vehicle (City of Sydney).

Particulate matter (PM) especially the fine particles are of most concern to human health. This is because fine PM can be inhaled deeply into the lungs; therefore, worsen respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses such as bronchitis, pneumonia and asthma. Motor vehicles also emit carbon monoxide (CO) which interferes with the bloods ability to carry oxygen to the brain, heart and other tissues, and it particularly dangerous for people with heart diseases and unborn children. Motor vehicles, in addition, contribute to the formation of ozone (03), a major harmful ingredient in smog. Ozone inflame and cause harmful changes in breathing passages, decreases the lungs' working ability and cause coughing and chest pains. Another hazardous gas that motor vehicles produce is the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO) that act on the body like ozone and sulfur dioxide (SO2). As such, gas emissions from motor vehicles have serious health implications including cancer, genetic mutation, birth defects and other serious illnesses (Toxic Air Pollution).  

2.0  Statement of the Problem

The problem that will be addressed in the study is the severity of the health impacts of air pollution caused by motor vehicles in Sydney. How and what strategies the government and people of Sydney could contribute in resolving this global issue will be addressed as well. The main purpose of the study is to analyse and evaluate the health impact of motor vehicle-related air pollution in Sydney and to present recommendations for resolving the problem. In lieu with this, the study will answer the following research questions.

1)     How much of Sydney's air pollution come from motor vehicles? In Sydney, how much air pollution do motor vehicles emit?

2)      What are the health and effects of motor vehicle emission? What are the common illnesses caused by motor vehicle emission in Sydney?

3)     What are the major air pollutants in Sydney caused by motor vehicles? How do these air pollutants affect the health of the people?

4)     How does Sydney government regulates motor vehicles emission? How air pollution caused by motor vehicles is being monitored?  

5)     How could motor vehicle emission in Sydney be reduced? What are the role of the government, the authority having jurisdiction and the public? 

3.0  Research Methodology

This study will be using a case study technique to isolate the occurrence of country of origin concept, particularly in the city of Sydney. The study will employ the descriptive research method, which uses observation and surveys. In this method, it is possible that the study would be cheap and quick. Nonetheless, it would be very hard to rule out alternative explanations and especially infer causations. Thus, this study will use the descriptive approach.  This descriptive type of research will utilize observations in the study.  To illustrate the descriptive type of research, Creswell (1994) will guide the researcher when he stated: Descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition. The purpose of employing this method is to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomena. The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire of the researcher to obtain first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study.

The research described in this document is partly based on quantitative research methods. This permits a flexible and iterative approach. During data gathering, the choice and design of methods are constantly modified, based on ongoing analysis. This allows investigation of important new issues and questions as they arise, and allows the investigators to drop unproductive areas of research from the original research plan. The researcher will conduct survey for the residents of Sydney who are hospitalised due to motor-vehicle-related air pollution as well as hospitals and healthcare institutions that admit patients.

This study also employs qualitative research method, since this research intends to find and build theories that would explain the relationship of one variable with another variable through qualitative elements in research. These qualitative elements does not have standard measures, rather they are behavior, attitudes, opinions and beliefs. As such, the researcher will conduct interviews to representatives of Cross City Tunnel Air Quality which monitors the status of air quality in Sydney and NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change to acquire expert opinions.   

4.0  References

Air Pollution. Think Quest. Retrieved on 5 August 2008 from http://library.thinkquest.org/26026/Environmental_Problems/air_pollution.html.

 

Creswell, J.W. (1994) Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

 

Toxic Air Pollution – Current Status of Air Pollution in Sydney. Retrieved on 5 August 2008 from http://kateschneider83.googlepages.com/rasp.doc.

 


August 24, 2008

Buyer Seller Relationship Research Proposal

 

 

2) Identify characteristics of buyer-seller relationship

Buyer-seller relations operate within a highly complex organizational environment bordering on a partnership where trust and respect for each other prevails (Eckels, 1990).  It is argued that companies and relationships in the business markets are inter-dependent and that the interaction is a series of short-term social interactions that are influenced by the long-term business process that bind the firms together.  Ford (2002) also argues that it would not make sense of companies by looking at them in isolation, but only in relation to each other.  The buyer-supplier relationship in Singapore home furnishing and customer electronics business markets can be analysed based on the general characteristics of buyer-seller relationships identified by Gadde & Hakansson (1993) as below:

 

a) Complexity

Gadde & Hakansson (1993) state that the complexity of the relationship depends on the number of people involved.  In general, the buying process in Singapore home furnishing and customer electronics business markets involves buyers, supplier's salespeople, buyer's and supplier's marketing department with extensive contacts to discuss and solve more or less advanced problem.  However, the complexity of the entire buyer-suppliers interface system lies in the fact that the ultimate actions may be controlled by some individuals who do not involve in the original transaction.  This may include the supplier's operation planning, transportation, and inventory control people.  On the buyer's side, the budgetary committee, that could hole the ultimate authority over the dispensation of the organisation's finances.     

 

b) Relationships as investments – their long-term nature

Ford et al (2002) argue that every action in a relationship should be seen in a time perspective that the investment which may involve costs will be pay off in the long run.  Based on their arguments, the cost of Singapore home furnishing and customer electronics business buyer-supplier relationship may involve contact/information cots and adaptation costs especially during the beginning stage.  The costs will fall later when buyer is getting to know the suppliers and their abilities and expertise through marketing and sales promotion activities.  It is worthy to note that it is more effective to retain and maintain existing relationships than to seek out new ones that may pose an obstacle to implementing changes.  Hence, buyers and suppliers should note that day-to-day activities should remain at a relatively high level to maintain a long-term relationship.

 

c) Adaptation

Adaptation occurs when one party in a relationship alters its processes or the item exchanged to accommodate the other party (Gadde & Hakansson, 1993).  Ford (2002) discusses that adaptation behaviour would vary over the life of the relationship.  In the early stages it will be a means to develop trust, and in the mature state it will expand and solidify the relationship.  There are many types of adaptations stated by Gadde & Hakansson (1993) such as technical, administrative routines and knowledge-based adaptations.  Buyer-seller in Singapore home furnishing and customer electronics business markets should continuously increases their knowledge of each other application of technology to give themselves an important developmental boost.  Besides, administrative routines such as planning, supply and communications systems need to be adapted by both parties for effective working relationship.  Hallen, Seyed-Mohamed & Johanson (1988) cited by Sheth & Parvatiyar (2000) argue that adaptation tend to bond the buyer and seller in a tighter relationship and create barriers to entry for competing suppliers.

 

d) Power and dependence

Power and dependence may be unbalanced with regard to individual dimensions and varies with the general state of the economy (Gadde & Hankansson, 1993).  The buyer-seller relationship may be more important to the buyer than the seller, or vice versa.  For example, Sharp Corporation viewed the relationship with SAFE was more important to SAFE and the relationship was struggled and characterised as distrust and both try to avoid vulnerability to other.  In 2001, the relationship was dissolved due to negative and strong form of reciprocity.  Gadde & Hankansson (1993) argue that there is no best strategy in any individual case of imbalance power and dependence relationship.  However, the awareness of the problem, regular and systematic discussions are the first step to learn and handle the questions better, and to build trustworthy relationship.

 

e) Conflict and cooperation

Buyer-seller mutual goals can only be accomplished through joint action and the maintenance of the relationship.  Conflict may arise if there is no goal and interest sharing.   Hence, reciprocal trust is a prerequisite for long-term relationships (Gadde & Hankansson, 1993).  It is also argued by Michel, Naude, Salle & Valla (2003) that buyer-seller relationship is built up through human effort and human contacts and in order for them to survive they must be under continual development.

 

f) Reciprocal trust rather then formality

Trust has assumed a central role in the development of marketing theory as business marketers placed greater emphasis on building long-term relationship (Dwyer, Schurr, & Oh, 1987; Morgan & Hunt, 1994 cited by Doney & Cannon, 1997).  Ford et al (2002) argue that trust should not be built in a relationship by making promises, but only by fulfilling them.  He argued that it could be easy to destroy a buyer's trust when the seller demonstrates a lack of commitment to a relationship.  Doney & Cannon (1997) discuss that seller should make significant investments to develop and maintain customer trust.  They argue that for suppliers, the value of such efforts is most apparent when high levels of buyer trust lead to more favourable purchasing outcomes for the supplier.  Although the process of building trust is expensive, time-consuming, and complex, its outcome in terms of forging strong buyer-seller bonds and enhance loyalty could be critically important to supplier firms.

 

3) Analyse Relationship Marketing

Relationship marketing is defined as all marketing activities directed towards establishing, developing and maintaining successful relational exchanges (Morgan & Hunt, 1994).  Anderson (2001) suggests that organisations need to move away from the traditional one-off transactional approach to a relationship marketing perspective and this point supports the discussion in Hutt & Speh (2001) that a business marketer may begin with a relationship from a supplier with transactional exchange to a preferred supplier status with collaborative exchange. 

 

Ford (200) argues that buyer and seller form long-term relationship, in which they share responsibilities and benefits, trust each other and are engaged in some coordinated planning.  His view is supported by Sheth & Parvatiyar (2000) that relationship must be mutual beneficial to both buyers and sellers in order to exist, and adopting relationship marketing implies the acknowledgement that each partner has a stake in the others activities.  In this way, both sides should think of ways to appropriately involve each other in strategy formulation and implementation processes.  Gronross (1991) cited by Polonsky, Schuppisser & Beldona (2002) states that the traditional relationship marketing literature emphasis the benefits of keeping existing partners satisfied.  Their discussion supports the views of Doyle (2000) that customers who stay with the supplier are assets of increasing value – each year they tend to generate higher and higher net cash flow.  Besides, the rational factors that influence stakeholder relationship discussed by Polonsky, Schuppisser & Beldona (2001) clearly supports the key characteristics of buyer-seller relationship as discussed earlier. 

 

4) Determine how trust of a selling firm and salesperson are built and developed in business markets.

a) Examine the antecedents and consequences of trust of a supplier firm and salesperson focusing on characteristics of the supplier firm, supplier firm relationship, salesperson and salesperson relationship.

Commitment and trust are the foundation of relationship marketing as it encourages buyers and sellers to make investment into a relationship, to resist taking advantage of alternative which provide short-term benefits, and not to behave opportunistically with regard to the relationship (Morgan & Hunt, 1994).  It is argued that trust has assumed a central role in the development of marketing theory as business marketers placed greater emphasis on building long-term relationship (Dwyer, Schurr & Oh, 1987; and Morgan & Hunt, 1994 cited by Doney & Cannon, 1997). 

 

Developing trust in a supplier firm is not only based on the size, but also the reputation, willingness to customize, confidential information sharing of supplier firm, and length of relationship with supplier firm and salespeople (Doney & Conoon, 1997).  In general, Singapore home furnishing and customer electronics retailers build trust with supplier firms primarily relying on supplier firm's size and reputation.  It is worthy to note that the supplier firms' willingness to make idiosyncratic investments and share confidential information provided evidence that they can be believed, they cared for the relationship and willing to make sacrifices.  These investments contribute to forging strong buyer trust in the selling firm and they can be expected to pay off the long run (Ford et al, 2002).   

 

b) Examine the role of supplier firm and salesperson trust on a buying firm's current supplier choice and future purchase intentions

Doney & Canoon (1997) argue that a company sales representative who proves to be dishonest and unreliable could jeopardize a long-term relationship between the buyer and seller but trusted salespeople helps to preserve customer commitment during difficult times.  A close interpersonal relationship helps to reduce customer firm's costs in the long run that can be a source of competitive advantage for supplier's firm (Wathne, Biong & Heide, 2001).  This can be done with emphasis on the supplier flexibility, product/service quality and relationship-specific adaptation stated by Cannon & Homburg (2001).   

           

Relationship marketing strategies are often based on account management programs, in which buyers are assigned a designated sales person who acts as an intermediary between the buyer and supplier (Lovelock & Wright, 1999).  As supplier's salespeople plays an important role in developing customer relationship value, the supplier firm should recognize the potential vulnerability if the key contact person were to leave, be transferred or promoted and thus be unable to serve the customer (Bendapudi & Leone, 2002).  Because turnover is bound to occur, there should be efforts to capture the employees' knowledge about their customers to transfer this information to a replacement.  Doney & Canoon (1997), and Cannon & Homburg (2001) suggest that supplier firms should emphasize customer satisfaction and note that the interpersonal trust engendered by salespeople and transferred to the supplier firm plays a key role in developing and maintaining enduring buyer-seller relationship. 

 

RESEARCH QUESTION

How buyers make choice of suppliers in term of trust in Singapore home furnishing and customer electronics business markets?


August 19, 2008

Investigating the Impacts of Environmental Health on Ageing: An Empirical Research Proposal Study of Western Sydney

 

1.0  Title

The working title of this research is initially drafted as – Investigating the Impacts of Environmental Health on Ageing: An Empirical Study of Western Sydney

2.0  Background of the Study

According to Jackson and Kochtitzky, the 21st century understanding of factors that promote health and factors which damage health has grown significantly. The diseases that the 21st century will experience are mostly chronic diseases which 'steal vitality and productivity and will consume time and money.' Nonetheless, these diseases can be moderated by how we design and build our human environment. As such, human behaviours will play a critical role in determining and influencing human health. People's health-related decision-making will be evident on the connection between environment's deterioration and the deterioration of the physical and mental health of the people living in that environment.

            Jackson and Kochtitzky also noted that when people mull over the factors that affect their health, the tendency is to focus on influences instead of traditional factors. Such aspect includes housing characteristics, land-use patterns, transportation choices and architectural or urban design decisions that contribute as potential health hazard for the young and the elderly most especially. Environmental barriers do not only impact the convenience or the quality of life for the elderly but are also critical health issues. As such, unhealthy experiences increasingly become common as people and states permit and encourage 'thoughtless development and unmanaged growth'.  

            The Australian government recognises the importance of environmental health in improving the quality of life of the elder population. As Andrews and Philips (2005) noted, making communities age-inclusive is vital for the purpose of promoting healthy ageing as the need for work, social and built environments that are age-friendly. The National Strategy for an Ageing Australian, fact, identifies housing and locational aspects of ageing and the nature and quality of the place as well as the dimensions of external environment that involves public spaces, transport, recreation and urban planning (p. 108).

            In July 2003, Western Sydney takes part on the issues surrounding ageing in Australia. Through a standing committee on ageing, various issues affecting the elder populace were deliberately taken into consideration. These include ways of encouraging participation of older workforce in the labour force, healthy ageing and what Western Sydney could learn from the experiences of China and Japan. Strategies of preventing social isolation of ageing people and ways of promoting research into ageing are also tackled.              

3.0  Statement of the Problem

The premise is that although the functional capability of the elderly had deteriorated, older people are more likely to sustain their independence in the existence of an age-friendly built environment. The problem that will be addressed on the study is the impacts of environmental health on the elderly people of Western Sydney. How the Western Sydney governance create and maintain an age-friendly built environment as well as the presence of environmental barriers will be also address. Examples of environmental barriers that impact the health of the aged are land use and the effects on air quality and respiratory health, built environment and physical activities, urban design including pedestrian and water quality. In lieu with this, the study will seek to answer the following specific questions.

1)     What are the environmental barriers in Western Sydney that hinders the promotion of healthy ageing? How do these environmental barriers affect the health of the older people?

2)     How does the local government promote healthy ageing? What are the different strategies in place?

3)     How does the government regulate the promotion of age-friendly communities? What are the different policies that support this endeavor?  

4.0  Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to explore the different environmental barriers that impact the health of the elder population and how the local government of Western Sydney addresses this problem. The following specific objective will be realised.

§         To analyse the different environmental barriers to the promotion of healthy ageing in Western Sydney

§         To determine how the local government respond to the dilemma of these environmental barriers

§         To evaluate how the local government regulate and promote healthy ageing in light of the environmental barriers 

5.0  Research Methodology

The study will explore the problem in an interpretivist view, using exploratory research strategy because it aims to know more about the phenomenon of environmental health and ageing and the interplay between them. Exploratory research will enable the study to look at the problem in both descriptive and exploratory manner. It will look into the problem by exploring the views of different sets of respondents, as well as by exploring different literatures related with the study.

The second method that will be employed is the case study since the focus of the research is Western Sydney. According to Robson (2002), a case study is a "strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence." The data collection methods employed may be various such as questionnaires, interviews, observation and documentary analysis.

6.0  References

Andrews, G. J. and Philips, D. R. (2005). Ageing and Place: Perspective, Policy, Practice. Routledge.

 

Jackson, R. J. and Kochtitzky, C. (n.d.). Creating a Healthy Environment: The Impact of the Built Environment on Public Health.

 

Robson, C. (2002> Real world research. (2nd edn). Oxford: Blackwell.

 


August 11, 2008

Sample Research Proposal Outline

Research Proposal Outline

 

 

Abstract

Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Background of the Problem

Research Objectives

Research Questions

Significance and Justifications

Research Design

Deliverable

Bibliography (or References)

 


Search your topic below.
We have more than 2,000 FREE Research Proposals in this FREE library.

Search This Blog

Related Posts with Thumbnails
 

Recent Posts