November 25, 2009

Policy process for residency permits at St. Maarten

 

The policy process is ideal for St. Maarten, being aware of the policies for attaining residence permit, to be able to describe the policy process, stage by stage and to possibly find out flaws pertaining to the policy, recognizing how the policy process went through and have steps or recommendations as to how the policy process should run or go about. The approach recognition and have account to the policy process, such policy practice in lieu to knowing permanent, temporary and illegal migration while entry policies change as countries seek to improve control over their borders, there is policy continuity but it does not correspond to situations, making it necessary to examine actual context found within the residency permit.

 

Notice that the process is too long and broad to comprehend thus, lacking salient purpose and objectives of such permit. Aside, it is not that integrative and reasonable enough for a residence permit policy of not reviewing and or consider if some requests are acceptable or not also, if it does not have basis to be processed or not. The policy accounts for authority of the head, the overall in charge in releasing or approving the application of residency permit. The requirements for the permit policy are based on basic standards such as complying the following:

- valid passport

- A deposit slip, equivalent to the cost of a one-way airline ticket, to the country of origin;

- Private Sickness Insurance or a declaration that the employer has registered the applicant with the Social Insurance Bank

- A letter of the employer not older than one week

- A Nafl. 10,-- stamp, obtainable at the Federal Receiver's Office

 

The above should be monitored and updated along with the keeping of records once approved by the governor. Thus, imperative to assimilate that census play a vital role in the approval of the policy. The one flaws of the policy is the lack of evidence such as sections and or articles of the policy, if it will deemed valid and reliable or not. That, every policy executed, sections and or number of policy articles should be present, and realized according to the residency standards of St. Maarten community and precise and clear accountability of sections and articles have to be systematic and organized and be approved by the government where St. Maarten is located.

 

For example, precise, effective and award winning policy process can be like this, in Section 2 of article 342 denoting that registration is important in acquiring resident permit and the function of the census office clearly identifies grounds for permit approval and or rejection of such. Much simplified policy process can denote to the following example.

 

 Take below as a concrete example

 

SECTION v: GROUNDS FOR REFUSAL OF A RESIDENCY PERMIT

ARTCLE 1: The Governor can refuse a residency permit based on the following grounds:

1.1 If the public interest does not benefit from the issuance of a resi        dency permit;

1.2 If for economic reasons the island territory will not benefit from the issuance of a residency permit to a non-national;

1.3  If the petitioner/employer cannot submit proof that the non-national will have sufficient means of income to sustain him/herself while residing on the island territory Sint Maarten;

1.4  If the documents (birth certificate, certificate of marriage or bachelorhood/spinsterhood), submitted by the non-national bear a false legalization stamp or apostille stamp, the good conduct certificate is false, or if the petitioner/employer and/or non-national do not comply with the requirements

 

And so on and so forth.

 

Furthermore, the information processing is in sequence and of detailed steps to follow, minor amendments on the latter will be considered and it has to be subject for assessment and review process for example, certain request for temporary residency permit can be submitted by persons who fall in certain categories. The policy process should be effective, direct and simple as to what the policy transpires, acting and doing of the applicants may be a necessary option or not based on imperative grounds, for instance those policies acceptable at the community schools located at St. Maarten.

Residence permits are to give grants to allow either definite stay in St. Maarten or indefinite stay as being subject to requirement completion and the need for returning resident's visa, to keep policy process a unified one. Thus, residence permits are placed in the applicant's passport and other travel document or, if the applicant does not possess valid passport or travel document, along with proof and certificate of the applicants identity.

Thus, be conform to the Immigration Act 1987 s 18A (1) such as:

When a principal applicant is granted a residence permit subject to requirements, the residence permits of any accompanying partner and dependent child will be subject to the requirement that "the principal applicant comply with the requirements of the principal applicant's permit".

For applications based on partner, and dependent child relationships, any applicant who is sponsored or supported by a person whose residence is subject to requirements at the time the sponsorship was undertaken or support given, will be granted residence permit subject to the requirement that comply with the requirements of permit".

 

 

 

 

 


GENDER POLITICS IN COMTEMPORARY AFRICAN LITERATURE: A STUDY OF SEMBENE OUSMANE'S GOD'S BITS OF WOOD AND BUCHI EMECHETA'S SECOND CLASS CITIZEN

CHAPTER ONE:

BACKGROUND

In characterizing African literature, critics have ignored gender as a social and analytic category. Such characterizations operate to exclude women's literary expression as part of African literature. Hence what they define is the male literary tradition. When African literary discourse is considered from the perspective of gender, it becomes evident that dialogic interaction between men's and women's writing is one of the defining features of the contemporary African literary tradition. Such redefinition has important implications for both critical and pedagogical practices. What it indicates is that neither men's nor women's writing can be fully appreciated in isolation from the other.

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem lies on the issues of gender politics in the African literature wherein various writers have clashes when it comes to views and ideas for example, pertaining to feminism and women in African politics

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to understand fully contemporary African literature from within gender politics to be critically presented of the two study in evaluation.

To find out classes and types of gender politics as ruled by the two famous proponents Ousmane and Emecheta

To be able to supplement current definitions of the male literary tradition and to define the features of the emerging female tradition in African fiction by examining some of the ways in which women writers have been written out of the African literary tradition.

 

RESEARCH QUESTION

Research questions are essential part of the research process, as this will imply a solid connection towards secondary knowledge composed of peer reviewed studies such as from academic centered journals and articles, also from documented information and facts from books having contents about leadership and change. The research questions serve as the initial organization flow of the study's review of the literature which leads to the creation of research methods and techniques.

What are the details and underpinnings that brought gender politics to be a part of the contemporary African Literature? This research will focus on the study of Sembene Ousmane's God's Bits of Wood and Buchi Emecheta's second class citizen.

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SUDY

The study is significant to literature advocates and educators of the modern times and significant to political officials as realizing gender politics view is not easy to take account into. Significant to master level students and graduates having literature majors and courses in module format.

 

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study will be in five chapters, and will present preliminary literature studies concerning gender politics in the contemporary African literature

 

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study will be limited only to information dealing with gender and politics and the two study presentations and of cases and comparisons in lieu to African literature as of today's era.

Limited to case study and comparative method of Ousmane and Emecheta     

 

RESEARCH METHOD

Presenting case study and comparative analysis of the two studies with reference to gender politics in African context and standards.

 

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Gender politics may refer to a submerged category in colonial discourse, status that it has maintained until recently in African men's literature. While African men writers challenge the racial codes of colonial discourse and attempt to subvert them, they adopt certain aspects of the gender coding of their supposed adversaries in their representation of African women. The genesis of the Mother Africa trope, trope that pervades the African male literary tradition from Senghor to Soyinka, can also be seen as colonial literature.

 

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

 

"Feminism, especially the womanist brand, has been popular critical tool that most critics, men and women alike, have employed in their critical appraisal of African literary works. This is decidedly very fertile area of contemporary scholarship. The emergence of this critical methodology in the African context stems from the perceived relegation of African women to the background, whether at the home front or in the domain of governance in the larger society. Essentially, feminism preaches equality of the sexes and frowns at the domination of women by men. Paradoxically, African literary works, being products and reflections of the stresses and tensions of the African society, have replicated this scenario. African literature, consequently, is male-dominated. This has and is still engendering reactions from concerned female and male writers who are re-writing the history of the emergent literature, countering and challenging male chauvinism by presenting conscious, active, resilient and courageous female characters in their novels. It is this anti-male domination crusade that has given concreteness to the feminization of heroism in African fiction as exemplified, in this study, by Nigeria's Buchi Emecheta and Senegalese Ousmane Sembene, reflecting in the process, the singleness of purpose of female and male African writers in their collective fight against discrimination against women" – (Agho and  Oseghale, 2008: pp. 181-191).

 

Thus, for example "Jameson, in the ideology consists of 'strategies of containment, whether intellectual or (in the case of narratives) formal' (Political Unconscious 52-3). The function of such strategies is to legitimate the power position of one's self and group. The burden of the reading of the African male literary tradition has been to reveal the strategies of containment to which men writers have resorted in their attempt to legitimate patriarchal ideology. These include the embodiment of Africa in the figure of a woman, one of the most enabling tropes of 'post-colonial' male domination as well as of colonialism; the portrayal of women as passive and voiceless, images that serve to rationalize and therefore to perpetuate inequality between the sexes; and the romanticization and idealization of motherhood, a means of masking women's subordination in society" – (Stratton 1994, p. 172)

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

The methodology to be used for the study is case study, multiple sources of qualitative and quantitative date, the study endeavors to understand and have critical analysis of gender politics as placed by the contemporary African literature, data collection will involve oral narrative inquiry interviews. The need to examine case analysis and case analysis method, interview will transcribe and comment needs to be clustered together with given conceptualization. The research implies to qualitative methods such as open-ended questions and quantitative methods such as to request respondents to rank their views about specific question in the questionnaire, as one common measure in education research. Questions are needed to be examined for reliability and validity. In order to avoid the case when the respondent will be forced to give an inaccurate response when his real attitude towards the statements ranging from 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neutral, 4 = agree and 5 = strongly agree, to be enclosed at.  Data will be collected and analyzed through using qualitative techniques such as pointing towards document analysis, interviews and questionnaire survey. The primary data is to be collected from the respondents in case situations, secondary data is to comprise of reference concerning research subject. The using of existing information on such levels into the study to be realized upon.

 

REFERENCES

Agho, J. and Oseghale, F. (2008). Wonder Women: Towards a Feminization of Heroism in the African Fiction: A Study of the Heroines in Buchi Emecheta's Second Class Citizen and Sembene Ousmane's God's Bits of Wood. Journal of Contemporary Research Vol. 5 2008: pp. 181-191

 

Stratton, F. (1994). Contemporary African Literature and the Politics of Gender, Routledge, pp. 1-200 

 

 


Global trends in energy security: the Case of Pakistan

 

The energy situation in Pakistan is very poor and needs immediate attention. There is a scramble by world powers to control the energy resources of the world. How Pakistan being close to oil rich gulf and central Asian state can make up for its growing energy needs given its weak economic potential? For simple answer to the question, Pakistan being close to oil rich gulf and central Asian state can make up for its growing energy needs given, they have weak economic potential by means of considering and applying imperative informative points. To plan, act and execute energy based security policy is needed, be able to strengthen such partnerships and collaboration when it comes to global energy security, the Pakistan authorities have to set goals, standards and or guidelines to bring forth effective measures and processes when it comes to energy security such as those that relates to oil and gas.

Fossil fuel reserves are diminishing rapidly across the world, intensifying the stress on existing reserves daily due to increased demand. Not only that, fossil fuels, presently contributing to 80 percent (Muneer and Asif, 2007 pp. 654-671


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) of world primary energy, are inflicting enormous impacts on environment. Energy sector has role in this regard since energy during its production, distribution and consumption is responsible for producing environmentally harmful substances. There is an urgent need for quicker switch over of energy systems from conventional to renewables that are sustainable and can meet the present and projected world energy demand. Hydrogen, in the capacity of energy vector and storage medium is expected to be the optimum solution for intermittency and storage of energy produced by renewables. Within the context of Pakistan solar and wind power are two of the most promising renewables. It has been found that solar energy is much more economical choice for Pakistan as compared to wind energy-respective costs for solar and wind energy as due to the fact barring the four monsoon months, the average wind speed for the remaining 8 months does not cross an economic threshold. On the contrary, it was found that solar energy has fairly stable and consistent availability (Muneer and Asif, 2007 pp. 654-671


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).

Aside, 'global and regional energy security in future is not likely to be threatened as much by the shortage of resources as it is likely to be endangered by the disruption of supplies and availability of tradable resources: threatened by growing terrorism and geopolitical conflicts. Pakistan's geo-strategic position and its importance act to both influence and undermine its energy security issues. It has the potential to provide corridor for regional energy trade but it is ranked among the top nations exposed to potential threat of terrorist attacks because of the consequences of its role in the major geopolitical expeditions of the recent past. There is ample need to examine concerns of Pakistan emanating from the regional and global geopolitics of energy from Pakistan's viewpoint' (Sahir and Qureshi, 2007 pp. 2031-2037). In addition, for example the presence of wind energy in Pakistan, the country have limited fossil fuel resource base. The poor economy does not allow the import of fossil fuels, particularly oil as put within large scale. Moreover, too much reliance on imported oil is critical from energy security point of view. A large fraction of the population lives in remote areas and is still waiting to be connected to the national electricity grid. To help these remote communities in particular, and to overcome energy shortages in general, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy resources like hydropower, solar and wind. More than 1000 km long coastline in south and some places in northern mountainous areas provide an excellent resource of wind energy. This vast potential can be exploited to produce electricity on both community and wind farm scales. Applications other than electricity production, such as water pumping, also have vast applications. The efforts for the utilization of wind energy in the country are presented as well, along with barriers to its development that the potential exists, but significant efforts are needed to effectively make use of this cheap renewable energy source (Mirza, Ahmad, Majeed and Harijan, 2007, pp. 2179-2190).

 

Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become major forex earner, it is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization rules obligate it to do. Research will endeavor to analyze significance global trends for Pakistan's case and those involved, among policy options to import natural gas, Indo-Iran overland pipeline option is considered to be effective and economical in addressing India's long term energy demands though security guarantees have been offered, there refuses to entertain the role of Pakistan in the project for fear of its energy supply being disrupted in case of military conflict with Pakistan. The need to argue that global security is not only aimed at addressing Pakistan energy concerns but to further energy related strategic objectives. Pakistan do not have shared objective to make the overland project political and commercial reality. The current energy consumption for Pakistan is to be presented and the issue of security of energy supply will be discussed. Furthermore, the prospects for large-scale switch over to renewables are also addressed and the relevant economies and underpinning rationale provided.

 

 

 

 

 

References

 




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Umar K. Mirza, Nasir Ahmad, Tariq Majeed and Khanji Harijan (2007). Wind energy development in Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 11, Issue 9, December 2007, Pages 2179-2190

 

Muneer T. and M. Asif (2007). Prospects for secure and sustainable electricity supply for Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2007, Pages 654-671

 




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Mukhtar H. Sahir and Arshad H. Qureshi (2007). Specific concerns of Pakistan in the context of energy security issues and geopolitics of the region. Energy Policy Volume 35, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages 2031-2037

 

 

 

 


Is 'action centered' leadership theory more relevant than examining leadership qualities such as humility and integrity? The case of leadership style of former US Pres. George W Bush (2001 -2005)

 

During March 2001, the Bush administration announced that it would not implement the Kyoto, international treaty signed in 1997 that would require nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, claiming that ratifying the treaty would create economic setbacks in the U.S. and does not put enough pressure to limit emissions from developing nations. In February 2002, Bush announced his alternative to the Kyoto Protocol; by bringing forth plan to reduce the intensity of greenhouse gasses by 18 percent over 10 years. The intensity of greenhouse gasses specifically is the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions and economic output, meaning that under this plan, emissions would still continue to grow, but at a slower pace. Bush stated that this plan would prevent the release of 500 million metric tons of greenhouse gases, which is about the equivalent of 70 million cars from the road. In November 2004, Bush administration officials asked the UN to allow US industries to use an additional 458 tons of methyl that was slated for elimination by the 1987 on Substances that Deplete ozone. July 2005, Environment agency decided to delay the release of an annual report on fuel economy. Evidence suggests that the administration's decision to delay the report's release was because of its potential to affect Congress's upcoming final vote on an energy bill six years in the making, which turned blind eye to fuel economy regulations.

The above points is a concrete evidence that George W. Bush focuses on action centered leadership rather than mere humility and integrity, in action centered leadership, three important points are a part and George W. Bush manifests the three points of task, individual and team. Bush was a motivational leader and he did that through encouraging his followers to always have faith in God so that, they are guided in the things that matter to them the most, Bush motivated individuals and teams in his government and Bush behave in certain ways such as time schedules, the availability of resources and general working conditions. In the work environment strong informal groups can form as a result of social needs, Bush respond to these needs by encouraging teamwork and by encouraging after hours social events.

Indeed, Bush respond to the motivation by offering independence from the usual constraints, by offering promotion to positions of control. Opportunities to develop job competencies such as training courses, professional qualifications, etc. are used to satisfy this motivation. Yes, 'action centered' leadership theory more relevant than examining leadership qualities such as humility and integrity why? Because it is inclined to the process by which person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization that makes it cohesive and coherent. In the case of former Pres. George W. Bush as a leader, he carry out action based process by applying effective attributes, values, ethics, character, knowledge as well as skills. George W. Bush supported change and innovation of the US in such humanitarian missions and development working with other leaders in a matter of action. For without action rooted leadership, there is no change achieved and that integrity and humility can be nonsense without leadership acted out and acted upon thus, as much as possible the latter qualities have to be balanced and well coordinated along with standards and norms to give service to others.

For instance, George W. Bush is one of history's great confidence men. That is not meant in the huckster's sense, though many critics claim that on the war in Iraq, the economy and a few other matters he has engaged in some manner of bait and switch, believer in the power of confidence. George W. Bush and his team have constructed a high-performance electoral engine. The soul of this new machine is the support of millions of likely voters, who judge his worth based on intangibles, character, certainty, fortitude and godliness rather than on what he says or does. The deeper the darkness, the brighter this filament of faith glows, faith in the president and the just God who affirms him. The life of the nation and the life of Bush effortlessly merge his fortitude, even in the face of doubters, is that of the nation; his ordinariness, like theirs, is heroic; his resolve, to whatever end, will turn the wheel of history. President Bush's popularity is increased when thoughts of death or terrorism are especially salient, and this is particularly relevant to ongoing campaign strategies as the 2004 presidential election approaches and for future political campaign strategies as well. The fact that reminders of death and the events of 9/11 enhanced support for President Bush may not bode well for the philosophical democratic ideal that political preferences are the result of rational choice based on an informed understanding of the relevant issues.

 

 

 


Causes and effects of television on children (young people)

 

 

Watching television is one of the things that entertain life and it brings in pleasure to the eyes but there are also consequences of watching TV preferably to the young ones. Research will focus on the causes and effects of watching TV catering to young people, specifically the children of today. Several children spend more time watching TV than doing any other activity except sleeping as watching too much television is unhealthy for young people because of the violent adult programming, the influence on children to mimic the actions they see, and the harmful effects it has on a child's ability to learn. Watching TV causes violence to children as such violent acts are perpetrated by the good guys, whom kids have been taught to emulate. Even though kids are taught by their parents that it's not right to hit, television says it's OK to bite, hit, or kick if you're the good guy. This can lead to confusion when kids try to understand the difference between right and wrong. And even the bad guys on TV aren't always held responsible or punished for their actions.

Young children are particularly frightened by scary and violent images. Simply telling kids that those images aren't real won't console them, because they can't yet distinguish between fantasy and reality. Behavior problems, nightmares and difficulty sleeping may be consequence of exposure to media violence. Reasoning with kids this age will help them, so it's important to provide reassuring and honest information to help ease fears, consider not letting your kids view programs that they may find frightening. Watching TV causes risky and or alarming behaviors to children as in fact, watching TV of children present major cause of undesirable behaviors as indicated by Van Hoose (1983, pp. 97-100), "television has the potential to make substantial contribution to the development of young people, say these writers, who argue that this contribution cannot be realized unless middle level educators help young people develop the types of skills and insight they need to use the medium wisely". On the other hand, TV is full of programs and commercials that depict risky behaviors such as sex and substance abuse as cool, fun, and exciting. And often, there's no discussion about the consequences of drinking alcohol, doing drugs, smoking cigarettes, and having premarital sex.

Indeed, studies have shown that teens who watch lots of sexual content on TV are more likely to initiate intercourse or participate in other sexual activities earlier than peers who don't watch sexually explicit shows. Alcohol ads on TV have actually increased over the last few years and more underage kids are being exposed to them than ever. A recent study by the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth found that youth exposure to alcohol ads on TV increased by 30% from 2001 to 2006. Watching TV leads to child obesity and other health problems as health experts have long linked excessive TV watching to obesity significant health problem today. While watching TV, kids are inactive and tend to snack. They're also bombarded with ads that encourage them to eat unhealthy foods such as potato chips and empty-calorie soft drinks that often become preferred snack foods. Studies have shown that decreasing the amount of TV kids watched led to less weight gain and lower body mass index, measurement derived from someone's weight and height.

Watching TV can cause autism, having autistic children on the rise as autism is estimated to affect approximately one in every 166 children, yet the cause or causes of the condition are not well understood. One of the current theories concerning the condition is that among a set of children vulnerable to developing the condition because of their underlying genetics, the condition manifests itself when such child is exposed to environmental trigger. It implies that the amount of television young child watches is positively related to the amount of precipitation in the child's community, if television is trigger for autism, then autism should be more prevalent in communities that receive substantial precipitation noting that childhood television viewing being important trigger for autism. Watching TV leads to brain development effects as with television programs, whether kids under two years of age should be watching becomes an important question.  While we are learning more all the time about brain development as TV viewing with later attention problems, like autism as mentioned earlier. Aside, TV scares or traumatizes a child as scary looking things like grotesque monsters especially frighten children aged two to seven as telling them that the images aren't real does not help because kids under age eight can't always tell the difference between fantasy and reality. Violent threats shown on TV can cause school-aged kids to feel fright and worry. When the threat is shown as news it creates stronger fears than when it is shown as fictional (Hancox, Milne and Poulton, 2005).

Watching television affect performance in school as one research study found that TV's effects on education were long term.  The study found that watching TV as a child affected educational achievement at age 26.  Watching more TV in childhood increased chances of dropping out of school and decreased chances of getting college degree, even after controlling for confounding factors (van der Molen and Bushman, 2008). Childhood TV habits are risk factor for many adult health problems, as one study looked at adults at age 26, how much TV they had watched as children.  Researchers found that 17 percent of overweight, 15 percent of raised serum cholesterol, 17 percent of smoking, and 15 percent of poor fitness can be attributed to watching television for more than 2 hours day during childhood and adolescence (Hancox, Milne and Poulton, 2004). Children may attempt to mimic stunts seen on TV, watching TV can cause sleep problems such television viewing is associated with altered sleep patterns and sleep disorders among children and adolescents. Regular sleep schedules are an important part of healthy sleep.

Study found that infants and toddlers who watch TV have more irregular sleep schedules.  TV viewing may promote alcohol use, the presence of alcohol on TV runs the gamut from drinking or talks about drinking on prime-time shows, to beer ads, to logos displayed at sporting events. Many studies have shown that alcoholic drinks are the most common beverage portrayed on TV, they are almost never shown in negative light. Children who watch TV are more likely to smoke, even though tobacco ads are banned on TV, young people still see people smoking on programs and movies shown on television.  The tobacco industry uses product placement in films (Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, 2003). Children get lots of information about sexuality from television as certain parents don't talk to their kids about sex and relationships, birth control and sexually transmitted diseases. Most schools do not offer complete sex education programs. So kids get much of their information about sex from TV, children are probably not learning what their parents would like them to learn about sex from TV. Sexual content is real presence on TV in soap operas, music videos, prime time shows and advertisements all contain lots of sexual content, but usually nothing about contraception or safer sex.  

Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth.  Alcohol advertising on television, 2001 to 2003:  more of the same.  Executive Summary.  Available at:  http://camy.org/research/tv1004/report.pdf.  Accessed 20 July 2009

 

Hancox RJ, Milne BJ, Poulton R. Association of television viewing during childhood with poor educational achievement. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Jul;159(7):614-8

 

Hancox RJ, Milne BJ, Poulton R.  Association between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: a longitudinal birth cohort study.  Lancet 2004; 364:257-262

Van Hoose J. Television: A Major Cause of Undesirable Behavior. NASSP Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 463, 97-100 (1983)

 

van der Molen JH, Bushman BJ. Children's direct fright and worry reactions to violence in fiction and news television programs. J Pediatr. 2008 Sep;153(3):420-4. Epub 2008 Apr 28

 

Zimmerman FJ, Glew GM, Christakis DA, Katon W. Early cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and television watching as predictors of subsequent bullying among grade-school children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Apr;159(4):384-8

 

 


The Need to Establish a Purchasing Department in an Organisation

 

1.0 Introduction

Purchasing department exist in most organisations particularly multinational and other large enterprises. Purchasing department works as opposite of sales and marketing department through identifying suitable suppliers and works to reduce cost of bought in items. With this said, one of the key responsibilities of purchasing department is to ensure that there will be no shortages. Such responsibility is carried out by properly coordinating acquisition of goods and services and by encouraging open and competitive bidding on all goods and services. When purchasing equipment, materials and supplies as well as services, there is the necessity to ensure that the right quality, in the right quantity at the right price and from the right source is evident.  

The purchasing department takes a new function today wherein the emphasis is on long-term business strategy and less emphasis on the more mechanical tasks of price comparisons and order placement. This premise is particularly true since the modern purchasing department is more often involved in the process of locating new sources, marketing and research and development (Banning, 1997, p. 1).

 

2.0 Problem Statement

The problem that will be addressed in this study is the necessity of establishing a purchasing department within an organisation. There are managerial, financial and technical implications of establishing a purchasing department hence it must be a requirement and that it will serve as a source of competitive edge to the organisation. However, the process of establishing a purchasing department is not without difficulties. The following research questions will be answered:

1)     What are the benefits of having a purchasing department to an organisation? What are the detriments?

2)     What are the problems and challenges encountered by organisations without a purchasing department?

 

3.0 Study Objectives

The main aim of this study is to explore the extent to which a purchasing department is deemed a necessity to organisations. In lieu with this, the following research objectives will be addressed:

·        Explore the positive and negative results of having purchasing department in organisations

·        Investigate reasons for the need of a purchasing department to an organisation

 

4.0 Methodology

The research strategy that the study will utilize is the descriptive method. A descriptive research intends to present facts concerning the nature and status of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study (Creswell, 1994). It is also concerned with relationships and practices that exist, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. (Best, 1970) In addition, such approach tries to describe present conditions, events or systems based on the impressions or reactions of the respondents of the research (Creswell, 1994). This research is also cross-sectional because of limited time. This research is a study of a particular phenomenon (or phenomena) at a particular time. (Saunders et al, 2003) Accordingly, cross-sectional studies often employ the survey strategy, and they may be seeking to describe the incidence of a phenomenon or to compare factors in different organizations.

In this study, primary and secondary research will be both incorporated. The reason for this is to be able to provide adequate discussion for the readers that will help them understand more about the issue and the different variables that involve with it. The primary data for the study will be represented by the survey results that will be acquired from the respondents. On the other hand, the literature reviews to be presented in the second chapter of the study will represent the secondary data of the study. The secondary sources of data will come from published articles from books, journals and theses and related studies.

The survey method, also known as the questionnaire method, will be used in gathering the data for this study. Surveys are the most common form of research method for collection of primary data. The descriptive survey of the population is valuable in understanding the audience, and in the definition of the existence and magnitude of the problems, and the survey data are also helpful in determining cause and effect relationships between variables (Commonwealth of Learning, 2000). For this study, two sets of structured questionnaires will be constructed: one for companies with purchasing department and another for companies which do not have purchasing department.

 

5.0 References

Banning, K. B. (1997). Opportunities in Purchasing Career, McGraw-Hill Professional.

Best, J. W. (1970). Research in Education, 2nd Ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Commonwealth of Learning. (2000). Manual for Educational Media    Researchers: Knowing your Audience. Vancouver, Canada: Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA).

Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students, 3rd Ed. London: Prentice Hall Financial Times.


Success Factors for a Valued Distributor – IT Solution Products

 

1.0 Introduction

IT distribution business is very competitive and margin is eroded due to competition amongst distributors in IT markets. IT distributors provide high quality and valuable computer products. IT vendor like HP, IBM, Microsoft, Cisco and etc usually appoint at least 2 to 3 distributors for their products and a quota was set to distributor on yearly basis. To meet vendor expectation (quota) some distributors will throw price to sell larger volume (hardware or retail box moving) which will may caused price war among distributors. Other then sales quota, vendor is looking at what value added that a distributor can provide to enhance their supply chain. Instead of continue distribute volume products which is getting very slim margin (2-4% GP), distributor need to expand the distribution portfolio to some higher margin solution base products (i.e. Networking products, Firewall product, storage for Data Center solution).

 

2.0 Problem Statement

Thus, the research is focus on what are the success factors to be a value distributor in selling solution products, i.e. provide pre and post sales services /consultation services to channel partner rather than just a pure box moving distributors. The second questions is can value added service be a competitive advantage (differentiation) for an IT distributor to gain more profitable product portfolio from vendor which will generate more profit to the business. As such, the study will answer the following questions:

1)     What makes a distributor a valued distributor to companies?

2)     How value adding services provide IT distributors with the competitive edge?

 

3.0 Study Objectives

The main aim of this study is to investigate success factors that make an IT distributor effective, sustainable and valuable. In lieu with this, the following research objectives will be addressed:

·        Determine how value adding services can make an IT distributor an indispensable element in IT supply chain

·        Distinguish how IT distributors could be a source of sustainable competitive advantage

 

4.0 Methodology

The research will be approached based on an interpretivism view. Interpretivism is the necessary research philosophy for this study because it allows the search, of the 'details of the situation, to understand the reality or perhaps a reality working behind them. It is necessary to explore the subjective meanings motivating people's actions in order to understand their actions.

The study will be exploratory in nature because it aims to determine the present facts as well as facts that are not yet explored about the critical success factors inherent for IT solution distributors. Exploratory research will enable the study to look at the problem in both descriptive and exploratory manner. It will look into the problem by exploring the views of different sets of respondents, as well as by exploring different literatures related with the study.

Primary and secondary research will be conducted in the study. In primary research, the study will survey IT distributors and the success factors that make them valuable. A structured questionnaire will be developed and it will be used as the survey tool for the study. It is planned that the questionnaire will have a 5 point Likert Scale, as well as yes-no questions.

Questionnaires will be used as the survey instrument. The questionnaires will be divided into two parts, the first part being demographic profile including commercial information and the second part on the success factors of IT distributors.


November 13, 2009

Research Proposal Sample on Do nurses in radiology wash their hands adequately and of specified time length?

Do nurses in radiology wash their hands adequately and of specified time length?



1.0 Introduction


Radiology refers to the specialty of medicine which deals with the application of imaging technology such as x-ray and radiation to diagnosing and treating disease. Interventional radiology is performed with the guidance of imaging technologies. Medical imaging is a function of the radiographer or the radiologic technologist. Radiology nurses also perform the medical procedure wherein they provide care and support to patients undergoing diagnosis in radiation imaging environments. Some of the medical procedures that radiology nurses involve in are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance and radiation oncology.


On the other hand, medical hand hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine and medical care which aimed at preventing or minimizing disease and the spread of these diseases. Hand hygiene purports to cleanse the hands of pathogens and chemicals which can further cause personal harm or disease, and is done for a minimum of 15 seconds to 2 to 6 minutes to 10 minutes. Nursing literature had long recognized the importance of good hand hygiene as a major factor in preventing the spread of illness in the care environment. Ellwood (2002) noted that it is very unlikely that health care practitioners observe such a vital practice.


For radiology nurses, they have a great opportunity to control nosocomial infection by attending to hand washing. If radiology nurses perform poorly on this, rates of infection would be high and if they will perform well, patients will be spared of the excess morbidity, mortality, longer hospitalizations, psychologic and social distress, and increased health care costs associated with preventable infections (Delaney and Gunderman, 2008). In radiology nursing further, it is yet to discover whether nurses are consistent in performing such necessary act.



2.0 Problem Statement


The key question that will be addressed in this study is - Do radiology nurses adhere to the standard procedure of hand hygiene adequately and effectively? Other research questions are:


1) How do radiology nurses perceive the procedure of hand hygiene?


2) Generally, are radiology nurses aware of the detriments of improper hand hygiene?


3) What are the reasons why radiology nurses perform poorly or well when it comes to hand hygiene?



3.0 Aim and Objectives


The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether radiology nurses are well-aware and competent of the hand hygiene procedure. Specifically, the research purports to:


· Determine the perceptions of radiology nurses of hand hygiene


· Distinguish the reasons behind why radiology nurses perform, inadequately perform and do not perform hand hygiene



4.0 Methodology


The research strategy that the study will utilize is the descriptive method. A descriptive research intends to present facts concerning the nature and status of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study (Creswell, 1994). It is also concerned with relationships and practices that exist, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing (Best, 1970). In addition, such approach tries to describe present conditions, events or systems based on the impressions or reactions of the respondents of the research (Creswell, 1994). Descriptive studies make use of observation. The researcher will observe and record the process and the time spent by radiology nurses in washing their hands through n observation log/schedule.


This research is also cross-sectional because of limited time. This research is a study of a particular phenomenon (or phenomena) at a particular time. (Saunders et al, 2003) Accordingly, cross-sectional studies often employ the survey strategy, and they may be seeking to describe the incidence of a phenomenon or to compare factors in different organizations. The study will survey 100 radiology nurses.


In this study, primary and secondary research will be both incorporated. The reason for this is to be able to provide adequate discussion for the readers that will help them understand more about the issue and the different variables that involve with it. The primary data for the study will be represented by the survey results that will be acquired from the respondents. On the other hand, the literature reviews to be presented in the second chapter of the study will represent the secondary data of the study. The secondary sources of data will come from published articles from books, journals and theses and related studies.


References



Best, J. W. (1970). Research in Education, 2nd Ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc.


Creswell, J.W. 1994. Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.


Delaney, L R & Gunderman, R B 2008, Hand Hygiene, Radiology Journal.


Ellwood, J 2002, 'Hands on: a critical look at infection control,' retrieved on 27 October 2009, from http://www.aromacaring.co.uk.


Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students, 3rd Ed. London: Prentice Hall Financial Times.




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