November 25, 2009

Global trends in energy security: the Case of Pakistan

 

The energy situation in Pakistan is very poor and needs immediate attention. There is a scramble by world powers to control the energy resources of the world. How Pakistan being close to oil rich gulf and central Asian state can make up for its growing energy needs given its weak economic potential? For simple answer to the question, Pakistan being close to oil rich gulf and central Asian state can make up for its growing energy needs given, they have weak economic potential by means of considering and applying imperative informative points. To plan, act and execute energy based security policy is needed, be able to strengthen such partnerships and collaboration when it comes to global energy security, the Pakistan authorities have to set goals, standards and or guidelines to bring forth effective measures and processes when it comes to energy security such as those that relates to oil and gas.

Fossil fuel reserves are diminishing rapidly across the world, intensifying the stress on existing reserves daily due to increased demand. Not only that, fossil fuels, presently contributing to 80 percent (Muneer and Asif, 2007 pp. 654-671


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) of world primary energy, are inflicting enormous impacts on environment. Energy sector has role in this regard since energy during its production, distribution and consumption is responsible for producing environmentally harmful substances. There is an urgent need for quicker switch over of energy systems from conventional to renewables that are sustainable and can meet the present and projected world energy demand. Hydrogen, in the capacity of energy vector and storage medium is expected to be the optimum solution for intermittency and storage of energy produced by renewables. Within the context of Pakistan solar and wind power are two of the most promising renewables. It has been found that solar energy is much more economical choice for Pakistan as compared to wind energy-respective costs for solar and wind energy as due to the fact barring the four monsoon months, the average wind speed for the remaining 8 months does not cross an economic threshold. On the contrary, it was found that solar energy has fairly stable and consistent availability (Muneer and Asif, 2007 pp. 654-671


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).

Aside, 'global and regional energy security in future is not likely to be threatened as much by the shortage of resources as it is likely to be endangered by the disruption of supplies and availability of tradable resources: threatened by growing terrorism and geopolitical conflicts. Pakistan's geo-strategic position and its importance act to both influence and undermine its energy security issues. It has the potential to provide corridor for regional energy trade but it is ranked among the top nations exposed to potential threat of terrorist attacks because of the consequences of its role in the major geopolitical expeditions of the recent past. There is ample need to examine concerns of Pakistan emanating from the regional and global geopolitics of energy from Pakistan's viewpoint' (Sahir and Qureshi, 2007 pp. 2031-2037). In addition, for example the presence of wind energy in Pakistan, the country have limited fossil fuel resource base. The poor economy does not allow the import of fossil fuels, particularly oil as put within large scale. Moreover, too much reliance on imported oil is critical from energy security point of view. A large fraction of the population lives in remote areas and is still waiting to be connected to the national electricity grid. To help these remote communities in particular, and to overcome energy shortages in general, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy resources like hydropower, solar and wind. More than 1000 km long coastline in south and some places in northern mountainous areas provide an excellent resource of wind energy. This vast potential can be exploited to produce electricity on both community and wind farm scales. Applications other than electricity production, such as water pumping, also have vast applications. The efforts for the utilization of wind energy in the country are presented as well, along with barriers to its development that the potential exists, but significant efforts are needed to effectively make use of this cheap renewable energy source (Mirza, Ahmad, Majeed and Harijan, 2007, pp. 2179-2190).

 

Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become major forex earner, it is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization rules obligate it to do. Research will endeavor to analyze significance global trends for Pakistan's case and those involved, among policy options to import natural gas, Indo-Iran overland pipeline option is considered to be effective and economical in addressing India's long term energy demands though security guarantees have been offered, there refuses to entertain the role of Pakistan in the project for fear of its energy supply being disrupted in case of military conflict with Pakistan. The need to argue that global security is not only aimed at addressing Pakistan energy concerns but to further energy related strategic objectives. Pakistan do not have shared objective to make the overland project political and commercial reality. The current energy consumption for Pakistan is to be presented and the issue of security of energy supply will be discussed. Furthermore, the prospects for large-scale switch over to renewables are also addressed and the relevant economies and underpinning rationale provided.

 

 

 

 

 

References

 




References and further reading may be available for this article. To view references and further reading you must purchase this article.

Umar K. Mirza, Nasir Ahmad, Tariq Majeed and Khanji Harijan (2007). Wind energy development in Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 11, Issue 9, December 2007, Pages 2179-2190

 

Muneer T. and M. Asif (2007). Prospects for secure and sustainable electricity supply for Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 11, Issue 4, May 2007, Pages 654-671

 




References and further reading may be available for this article. To view references and further reading you must purchase this articl
Mukhtar H. Sahir and Arshad H. Qureshi (2007). Specific concerns of Pakistan in the context of energy security issues and geopolitics of the region. Energy Policy Volume 35, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages 2031-2037

 

 

 

 


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