1.0 Background of the Study
An average person inhales about 20, 000 liters of air everyday, exposing to risk of dangerous chemicals in air each time human breathe. Air pollution contains contaminants in the atmosphere and these dangerous substances could be either in the form of gases or particles. Air pollution has diverse and numerous effects. It can have serious consequences for the health as well as severely affect the natural ecosystems. Today, some areas suffer more than others from air pollution. Two of the main reasons are the large numbers of automobiles and/or the utilisation of coal in great quantities (Think Quest).Seemingly, motor vehicle-related air pollution is an inescapable reality for urban settlers. In Sydney, for instance, motor vehicles is one of major source of toxic and carcinogenic air pollutants as motor vehicles contribute approximately 80% of nitrogen oxide to the atmosphere. Further, the two prime pollution problems in
Particulate matter (PM) especially the fine particles are of most concern to human health. This is because fine PM can be inhaled deeply into the lungs; therefore, worsen respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses such as bronchitis, pneumonia and asthma. Motor vehicles also emit carbon monoxide (CO) which interferes with the bloods ability to carry oxygen to the brain, heart and other tissues, and it particularly dangerous for people with heart diseases and unborn children. Motor vehicles, in addition, contribute to the formation of ozone (03), a major harmful ingredient in smog. Ozone inflame and cause harmful changes in breathing passages, decreases the lungs' working ability and cause coughing and chest pains. Another hazardous gas that motor vehicles produce is the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO) that act on the body like ozone and sulfur dioxide (SO2). As such, gas emissions from motor vehicles have serious health implications including cancer, genetic mutation, birth defects and other serious illnesses (Toxic Air Pollution).
2.0 Statement of the Problem
The problem that will be addressed in the study is the severity of the health impacts of air pollution caused by motor vehicles in
1) How much of
2) What are the health and effects of motor vehicle emission? What are the common illnesses caused by motor vehicle emission in
3) What are the major air pollutants in
4) How does
5) How could motor vehicle emission in
3.0 Research Methodology
This study will be using a case study technique to isolate the occurrence of country of origin concept, particularly in the city of
The research described in this document is partly based on quantitative research methods. This permits a flexible and iterative approach. During data gathering, the choice and design of methods are constantly modified, based on ongoing analysis. This allows investigation of important new issues and questions as they arise, and allows the investigators to drop unproductive areas of research from the original research plan. The researcher will conduct survey for the residents of
This study also employs qualitative research method, since this research intends to find and build theories that would explain the relationship of one variable with another variable through qualitative elements in research. These qualitative elements does not have standard measures, rather they are behavior, attitudes, opinions and beliefs. As such, the researcher will conduct interviews to representatives of Cross City Tunnel Air Quality which monitors the status of air quality in Sydney and NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change to acquire expert opinions.
Air Pollution. Think Quest. Retrieved on 5 August 2008 from http://library.thinkquest.org/26026/Environmental_Problems/air_pollution.html.
Creswell, J.W. (1994) Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Toxic Air Pollution – Current Status of Air Pollution in
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