Sample Essay on Evolution of Management Thought and its Contribution to Management Practices in Contemporary Institutions
Evolution of Management Thought and its Contribution to Management Practices in Contemporary Institutions
The evolution of management thought is deeply rooted from the theoretical structure of management. Various schools of management thought began late in the 19th century; this study has been evolved through several stages, as the scholars and practitioners were working in different periods. Over the years of practice, management scholars have been seeking various ways to organize and classify the unlimited information on management. They were being collected as well as disseminated, in order to classify and identify the different areas of management thought. In this connection, numerous schools were being established such as classical, behavioral, quantitative or management science schools, as well as the systems and contingency schools. The formal study of management during the twentieth century became a phenomenon in to some extent. Furthermore, the classical school has been considered the oldest formal school of management thought. It started during the twentieth century. Its general concerns were ways on how to manage the work and organizations in a more efficient manner. Under the classical school, there are three areas of studies such as scientific management, administrative management and bureaucratic management. Correspondingly, under the scientific management area, management decisions were arbitrary, and employees more often intended to work slowly in the workplace. And, because many employers and workers were having conflicts by the system; scientific management was introduced, in order to create a mental uprising in the workplace. This systematic study of work methods is appropriate for the efficient and effective accomplishment of job responsibilities on a given time among the management workers. Next to that, scientific management recommends employees to be scientifically chosen through their qualifications and trainings for the specified job. Third, scientific management believes that there must be a mutual self-interest among the workers and the management. Finally, scientific management advocates complete responsibility for planning the job responsibilities of the workers as they are implemented by the management. Relatively, it also develops the fair implementation of a pay-for-performance incentive program based on work performance standards.
On the other hand, administrative management, is another area of management which focuses on the management process and principles of management. Comparatively, this area deals with jobs that need a deep level of analysis, administrative skills and theories of management. However, administrative management has been considered the most rigid and its validity of management functions are being questioned. Additionally, Fayol, a management practitioner; shared his own experience on the management functions and principles; strongly believes that management functions as planner, organizer, coordinator, commander and controller within any organization. He also pointed out that division of labor, authority and tasks, unity of command and direction, as well as centralization, subordinate initiative and team work are the most important elements of excellent management practice. Another area of management thought is bureaucratic management, this focuses on the ideal form and structure of organization. Max Weber, as the main contributor of bureaucratic management considered bureaucracy, division of labor, hierarchy, rules and policies, impersonality an the choice of deserving candidate for promotion can help the entire organization to attain efficient and effective working relationship between the management and its employees. While the systems school targets the understanding of the organization as a whole, its interaction with the workforce and with the environment. And, through this entire interaction in the workplace; altogether, they should attain favorable outcomes.
Aside from that, contingency school centers its principles on the various situational factors that bring impacts to the management line external environment, technology, organization characteristics, traits of the managers and the subordinates. Over time, management thought has been continued to progress; and new approaches came out. Total quality management or TQM and the learning of the organization have been additional insights in the field. This area mainly focuses on managing the entire organization in order to deliver goods and services to the clients. TQM involves employee participation in preventing quality problems. It deals with the customers’ needs and wants, and how to deliver products and services that will most likely satisfy them. Somewhat, benchmarking is very essential element to get better ideas on how other companies perform in the market. This will allow the management to assists its own business performance and achievements among its competitors. Lastly, learning the environmental and technological changes; leads the management to take future challenges positively. They will help the management to determine what other areas of improvement the managers and their subordinates should work together to attain their common goals in the organization. This is the most effective way of identifying, as well as solving company’s current and future problems; which may allow the workforce to grow, learn and excel more in the organization.