Nature of the Problem
The criminal justice system has been tasked to look after the welfare of the society as a whole. This means that both the offenders and law-abiders fit within the responsibility of the criminal justice system. Recent news briefs have been presenting reports of crimes perpetrated by relatively young offenders. Unfortunately, this situation could only get worse as juvenile offences have considerably been committed by offenders progressively getting younger. Studies have been really open in interpreting these occurrences as a social problem. (Ouimet, 2000, 15) In order to possibly avert any more instances of youth offence, it would be advisable to look into the underlying reason of juvenile delinquency based on criminal theories. Thus, this proposal will try to answer a central question: "how could criminal theories address the problem of juvenile delinquency?" Basically, the study will be addressing this central question by answering certain specific research questions and eventually testing the directional hypothesis that will be pointed out in the later part of this proposal. The study will be covering three theories of interpreting crimes: classical, positivist, and strain theory. Using these perspectives, the study intends find out the specific elements contributing to juvenile delinquency and to generate a set of recommendations that would address the said social problem.
The study intends to use the perspective of three criminal theories to understand and eventually address the issues surrounding the issue of juvenile delinquency. Specifically, the study intends to answer the following research questions:
1. How does the level of punishment affect the recurrence of delinquency among youth offenders?
In answering this research question, the classical theory of crime will be used. Particularly, a closer look on the supposed "pain-pleasure" elements and their influence on the offender will be taken into account. (Brownfield and Sorenson, 1995, 21) Thus, this research question intends to test the following hypothesis:
H1: The level of punishment given to the youth offender is directly proportional to the recurrence of the juvenile act.
2. How could scientific processes help in averting delinquent crimes among young offenders?
In this research question, the response will use the positivist theories. Particularly, responses using the biological and psychological theories to address the social problem. Del Olmo (1999, 19) noted that in using these theories, the issue of delinquency is seen as neutral objects similarly controlled by universal laws. Thus, this research question intends to test the following hypothesis:
H2: The use of scientific processes is directly related to prevention of juvenile delinquency.
3. How does the environment affect the occurrence of delinquency among young offenders?
This third research question will use the strain theory to respond and test the hypothesis. According to the work of Barlow (1995, 78), society is to blame of the actual existence of crime. Using this premise, the analysis of juvenile delinquency will be taken into account as well as the possibility of preventing its recurrence. Thus, this research question intends to test the following hypothesis:
H3: The juvenile offender's environment is directly related to the occurrence of delinquent offences.
Chapter 1 – Background to the Study The Zambian economy has historically been based on the copper-mining industry, which is done the Copperbelt. Output of copper had fallen, however, to a low of 228,000tonnes in 1998, continuing a 30-year decline in output due to lack of investment, and more recently, low copper prices and uncertainty over privatization. In 2001, the first full year of a privatized industry, Zambia recorded its first year of increased productivity since 1973. The future of the copper industry in Zambia was thrown into doubt in January 2002, when investors in Zambia's largest copper mine announced their intention to withdraw their investment. Zambia now needs to depend on other tourism activities to help the economy. The main objective of this study is to investigate Zambia's policy on tourism, and explore mechanisms available to promote this industry elsewhere by identifying tourist attraction areas, and instituting lasting policies by the government, which has …