September 5, 2011

Association between Economic Disadvantage with Health Behavior among Adolescents Sample

Association between Economic Disadvantages with Health Behavior among Adolescents

Many studies show that health behavior among adolescents are greatly associated with the socio-economic status of one country. Adolescent childbearing is prevalent in the regions where there are low levels of income and education among the population. It is also revealed that different race, culture, ethnicity and tradition are crucial elements in this issue across countries. And, low level of education contributes a lot to the desire of adolescents to initiate sexual intercourse at an early age; due to ignorance of the bad effects of early sex to their heath. For instance, in United States, there are many numbers of young men who use condoms as form of contraceptive. Nevertheless, despite all these sexual issues throughout the globe, still there are many women in the US who are most likely to give birth during their adolescence. In the contrary, there are many young women in African and Arab countries, who do not practice the same extra precautions, maybe because of the old traditions and cultures that they still follow until this time and age; about gender inequality among men and women in their countries, similarly experience the same situations as many adolescents in many parts of the world. Comparatively, United States has higher birth and pregnancy rates than other developed countries. More than two decades, researchers and advocates against early sex and pregnancy in the United States have studied the factors that associated with the current social issue in their country. Compared to them, Canada and the Western part of Europe have lower rates of early sex and pregnancy issues. And, US scholars considered the comprehensive sexuality education, greater societal openness about sexuality and easy access to reproductive health services are the main reasons. Aside from this fact, families who live in poverty, lack of education, as well as the parents are both jobless, poorly educated with sexual issues and family planning. Economic and education disadvantages among adolescents are the main indicators of health-risk behavior among these young people in the society at large. Furthermore, lower personal competence, skills, low self-esteem, motivation and limited access to health services are among the reasons of the issue. In the same manner, lack of good role models within the family, as well as in the community makes them prone to sexual-behavior. Some researchers in the Unite States disclosed the fact that there are majority of women under age 20, who reportedly did not want their pregnancies. There are 46 % Hispanic women, 67 % are whites and 77 % are blacks. According to various reports, high rates of abortion cases are also prevalent in every part of the globe. There are young women who prefer abortion as their last resort; if they feel that they are not financially and morally capable of keeping the child. In Canada, it was reported that 15-24 years old of young people who are at high-risk of sexually transmitted diseases belong to low level income families in Toronto. On the other hand, in Great Britain and France, researchers identified the relationship of broken families as the strong influence among adolescents to engage in early sexual activities and early parenthood. Moreover, many adolescents are reacting badly towards the problems in the family, extreme poverty and abuse, to the extent that they engage in early sexual activities to different sexual partners. The risk of becoming teenage mother is comparatively 10 times higher among women from lowest social class than those women who belong in the highest class. In addition, teenagers who live in public housing are three times more likely to become teenage mothers compared to their peers who have their own housing.

(http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3325101.html)

Subsequently, due to poor economic condition of one country, there are many adolescents who likewise involve in excessive smoking, drug addiction and alcoholism. Aside from these health problems, abortion, early pregnancies, various sexually transmitted diseases, are the top health problems at present time among adolescents throughout the globe. Correspondingly, there are many socio-economic disadvantages on health behaviors among them. Biological and developmental factors, as well as their relationship with their parents, peers and partners, support system from the family, parental guidance and the level of parental control over the children are all crucial elements to prevent these health-risk behaviors to happen among adolescents in the society. In view thereof, different non-government organizations along with various government agencies across the world are initiating their best efforts to resolve all these health issues among teenagers; or at least to reduce the rates of the socio-economic problems. Remember, the youth is the hope of all nations; therefore, they must be nurtured with love, care and proper supervision, in order them to live their lives in a meaningful way.

(http://www.kish.upjs.sk/_files/kish_kish_publications_001_file_21.pdf)

References:

(http://ww w.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3325101.html)

(http://www.kish.upjs.sk/_files/kish_kish_publications_001_file_21.pdf)

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