The effectiveness of the laws tends to rely heavily on its enforcement. More particularly, without the effective enforcement initiatives, laws become basically mere guidelines that point out suggestions and not as rules that set the parameters of a specific area. This is similarly true with the context of the environmental laws. Along with the trend of standardisation among nations all over the world with regards to ratification of legislation, there is an impending issue on whether such standard laws pertaining to the environment are viable for certain countries. This issue is well seen in the context of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. To this end, the primary objective of this paper is to provide a detailed examination of the existing laws in environmental protection and the consequent enforcement of HKSAR on these legislations. The secondary objective is to compare these legal initiatives as well as the effectiveness of enforcement with the legal regime governing in other countries. For the purposes of this thesis, the foreign countries to be regarded will include
The main source of data that this paper will employ will come from case laws from the three countries as well as the ratified legislation on environmental laws. In the same regard, the paper will also take into consideration the use of existing literature relating to the international standards, treaties and initiatives on environmental law and its enforcement.
II. Background and Concept behind the Statement
Studies focusing on the environment and its protection have constantly been regarded by lawmakers and politicians in both international and local levels in determining the proper rules and legislations needed in a particular state. For instance, studies have mentioned several areas of concern which could be addressed by legislation. These include the quality of the air, the quality of water, level of noise pollution, waste disposal, and its consequent environmental impacts. The need to determine the need to address these perceived elements involving the environment intensifies almost in a daily basis. Particularly, with the continuous and unrelenting drive of state towards development and urbanisation, these stated elements will continue to deteriorate unless the state places a firm stand on its protection and act on breaches on these laws.
Focus on the environmental regime governing Asian countries has been rather scant as compared to the discussion relating to the
In the context of
III. The Environmental Laws in
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Internet banking refers to the utilization of the Internet for performing transactions and payments by accessing a bank's secure website.It also pertains to the application of financial services and markets through the use of electronic communication and computation(Humphrey et al. 2004).The developments can be subdivided into two main areas. The first is the impact of Internet banking on financial services. Most economists perceive that the existence of the Internet and other electronic communication processes has significantly changed many aspects of the banking industry. A majority of the services normally provided by banks can already be provided by other financial entities (Jayaratne et al. 2001). The second main area is the major transformation that occurred on most financial markets. Nowadays, these no longer need to be related with a physical place. In effect, trading systems for foreign exchanges are gradually becoming global. All these change…