During exercise, the respiratory and circulatory systems work intimately together in increasing first the amount of oxygen transported to, and second the amount of carbon dioxide transported from, the working muscles. For example, the rapid increase in both rate and depth of breathing brings in from the outside environment more and more oxygen, while the quickened circulation of blood rushes it to the internal environment of the muscle cells. By the same token, these coordinated changes allow for adequate removal of waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the muscles, to be given off to the external environment. Actually, the common objective that these two systems strive to adequately maintain during exercise, as well as at rest, constitutes the physiological or functional purpose of the cardiorespiratory system.
Basically, this paper discusses in detail the research proposal that examines the significant effectiveness of Pursed Lip Breathing techniques to COPD patients. The researcher attempts to identify whether the individual that participate in treatment technique will demonstrate improvement in their health. This includes discussion of its history, the current status of Pursed Lip Breathing techniques, and its relationship to the health of an individual with cardiorespiratory ailments. Specifically, this proposed research explores the perceptions of COPD patient respondents and their view regarding the effectiveness of the said treatment technique.
This research proposal discusses in detail the background and plan of the study. Moreover, the resources and its significance are presented. Here, vital concepts, questions and assumptions are also stated.
Background of the Study
According to Blaxter (1990), health can be defined negatively, as the absence of illness, functionally as the ability to cope with everyday activities, or positively, as fitness and well-being. Apparently, www.encylopedia.com defined health as a form of homeostasis. Moreover, the website described health as "a state of balance, with inputs and outputs of energy and matter in equilibrium (allowing for growth). Health also implies good prospects for continued survival. In sentient creatures such as humans, health is a broader concept."
Health care professionals, the public, and policy makers work tirelessly together to establish the most effective guidelines of care from clinical and cost perspectives for hospitalised patients in any health care setting. Every health care professional not only those who are working in hospitals are challenged to stay familiar with new information regarding health care concerns in order to provide the highest quality of service to patient care centres. Evidence-based practice is therefore, important in the health care field particularly to the COPD patients with cardiorespiratory problems. Evidence-based practice is defined as the integration of best systematic research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values (Potter & Perry, 2004). In cardiorespiratory ailments, appropriate and effectiveness of treatment techniques are the primary concern of COPD patients. The improvement of their cardiorespiratory system with respect to the Pursed Lip Breathing techniques used should be properly evaluated. And one of method to determine the effectiveness of these treatment techniques is through the perception of COPD patients. Actually, patient satisfaction regarding the treatment effectives is important. It is individual's evaluation of a range of aspects to immediate health care, together with an overall evaluation of the health-care event, based on the individual's expectations and previous health-care encounters (Girard, 2006).
Health care organisations are now starting to create mechanisms to facilitate the process of information translation from available literature to practice (Martyn, 2005). This is usually through analysis. The main purpose of evidence analysis is to determine how to provide the highest quality care to the cardiorespiratory patients (Girard, 2006). Evidence from research must be interpreted and used with caution, however. One study may have significant findings while another on the same topic repudiates these findings. This creates a quandary for nurses trying to determine the value of a particular practice.
In examining the issue of translating research-based evidence into practice, authors frequently focused on collaboration, service, and integration. Each of these components figures prominently in the work performed in one medical centre (Martyn, 2005). The approach selected to use research in practice reflects the structure and mission of the organisation. The objective of this is to provide the best care using the effectiveness of treatment in accordance to patients' perceptions.
In terms of research approach, the researcher opted to use both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative data-gathering instruments such as the survey method, establish relationship between measured variables. The purpose of the quantitative approach is to avoid subjectivity by means of collecting and exploring information which describes the experience being studied. Contrary to the quantitative method, qualitative approach generates verbal or textual information rather than numerical values (Polgar & Thomas, 1995). One of the notable strengths of the qualitative instruments is that they evoke a more realistic feeling of the research setting which cannot be obtained from statistical analysis and numerical data. These data collection methods allow flexibility in conducting data gathering, research analysis and interpretation of gathered information. In addition, qualitative method allows the presentation of the phenomenon being investigated in a more holistic view. Though both approaches are useful, combining their features allowed the researcher to limit the limitations of either approach.
Sampling and Participants
The researcher often must rely on his or her judgment in drawing a sample and may end up selecting cases for such reasons as availability or willingness to participate in the research (Singleton & Strait, 1999). Therefore, for this study, purposive sampling was found to be appropriate since it is a typical field research.
For this particular research, the proposed purposive sampling will be used. In this instance, that very few cases would be included in the sample due to time and practicality, a selection process other than random would be more prudent. A total of 20 COPD patients or healthcare consumers with cardiorespiratory ailments were able to partake in the study.
Primary resources would be collected from regular COPD patients with cardiorespiratory ailments by physically handing them questionnaires during visits and mailed out to other selected COPD patients not available in the centre during the survey. The questionnaire will be also directed to the family members, guardians or caregivers for patients or clients who were still unable to participate in the research process (e.g. children, elderly, bedridden). Aside from the 20 COPD patients selected as survey respondents, the researcher also selected a few officials from healthcare agencies to participate in an interview. For this process, 2 officials from the Ministry of Health and 3 representatives from different non-governmental organisations will be selected as interviewees. The interview schedule, developed by the researcher, contained questions that helped identify the effectiveness of Pursed Lip Breathing techniques, the status of Pursed Lip Breathing techniques and health facilities as well as the different issues affecting proper healthcare service delivery. The research timetable was also presented in Appendix.
It is obvious that advancements and development in healthcare particularly in cardiorespiratory ailments treatments will benefit the COPD patients. Pursed Lip Breathing techniques have attracted substantial attention from hospitals, health organisations and government. This study shall be an informative guide to health organisations seeking to the advantages and effeteness of their current cardiorespiratory treatment techniques. Furthermore, the problems and the issues in health industry shall be illustrated.
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