In general, motivation is the driving force that helps humans to achieve their goals and dreams in life. Similarly, it is also a basic need to help minimizing physical pain and maximize pleasure among humans. It may include regular needs such as eating, resting, desire, goal state of being and ideals. It is said that there are two types of motivation, one is intrinsic; and the second one is extrinsic. When you say intrinsic motivation, it refers to the driven interest or enjoyment in the task itself. Meaning, it is already exists within the individual. And, it can be acquired through high educational achievement and enjoyment by the students or professionals. Normally, students are most likely intrinsically motivated if they have favorable educational results after all the exerted efforts they put in their studies. In the same manner, they believe that they are the effective agents for reaching their dreams and ambitions in life. And, they are most likely interested to mastering a topic, rather than learning just to get a high grades. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation comes from outside part of the individual. Such as rewards like money and good grades, coercion and punishment. For instance, competition is typically extrinsic by nature, because it encourages individuals to perform better and win over the others. A cheering crowd and trophies are considered extrinsic incentives as well. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation)
According to social psychological research, extrinsic rewards may lead to over justification and may pave the way into reduction in intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, self-determination theory shows that extrinsic motivation can be internalized by the individual if the task given to him or her fits to what he or she believes in. In the same way, self-control of motivation can be understood deeply as a subset of emotional intelligence; if a person has a highly acquired intelligence in accordance with the measurable factors. People, who have strong self-control, are more likely to pursue a particular goal rather than people who have little self-control. Correspondingly, drives and desires can be considered as a deficiency or a need that triggers human’s behaviors to act positively towards their goal with or without an incentive. Basic drives such as hunger, motivates a person to look for food. While, subtle drives may only target for other people’s praise or approval. In the contrary, intrinsic theory is presented after the action is accomplished. Studies show that if an individual receives a reward readily; it has great impact to him or her. And, repetitive action-reward combination can be habit sometimes. Since, motivation comes from the inner self, and from the other people respectively. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation)
Moreover, according to Abraham H. Maslow, an American motivation psychologist; there are five hierarchies of needs that humans need to acquire in order to live. The human basic requirements must be first satisfied, in order to motivate them further to attain their goals or objectives. Normally, humans need for food, clothing shelter and security. If all these requirements can be met satisfactorily, they will come to realize to work for more than what they have. Humans’ desires and wants greatly influenced their behavior towards reaching their goals. There are various motivators such as challenging work, recognition and rewards, responsibilities that all give positive satisfaction to the individuals. Additionally, Motivator-Hygiene Theory explains that hygiene factors like economic status, job security, high salary and fringe benefits are somewhat do not motivate if present among the employees. However, if all these things will be taken away from them, they would realize the importance of these things to them in order to live decently and functionally. Besides, Achievement Motivation is an integral part of performance motivation among people who are motivated and directed towards excellent performance in an organization. Relatively, it focuses on the achievements and attainments in the workplace.
In addition to that, Goal-setting theory is based on the proximity, difficulty and exactness of the attaining goal. An ideal goal must be seen in the present situation through hard work, and determination to achieve the set of objectives within the organization. Workers in an organization must be given motivation to keep them inspired to do their tasks. And, the most effective way to do this is to raise the salaries of the employees, if applicable. But, at this time and age, raise of salary alone, is not adequate for the employees to stay in one company. In order to motivate them to give their loyalty, as well as their best effort to the company; they must be motivated through recognition, rewards and fringe benefits; along with the continuous education program for them to improve personally and professionally.