October 20, 2009

Relationship between Principals decision making styles and Teacher Performance at Secondary schools In Pakistan

Methodology and Instrument for Data Collection

The research method for this particularly study can be in various assimilation and organization. First, there is a need to integrate secondary research methodologies in a form of research critiques, serving in preliminary literature review as the base methodology. The critical appraisal of literature review upon gathering of related information through peer reviewed journals and articles.

Second method and third method will be focusing on primary research through qualitative and quantitative ways of analyzing research data.

The second method will be in a form of narrative research inquiry directing to case study approach and analysis, this method or technique will be realized by means of doing in semi structured interviews to several teachers and principals of at least two secondary schools operating and located in Pakistan.

The third and last methodology will serve as the core method for this particular study as the method will place in reliable and valid weight to empirical investigation using in sample subjects as study respondents presenting in a desirable population. The method adheres to survey questionnaire to be of measures/procedures as well as instrumentation tools. This will be in a form of survey like statements comprising of certain sections upon which responses are to be noted in a five point scaling system for calculation as well as interpretation. Investigating how principal's leadership is related to secondary school teachers' performance in terms of some indicators such as teaching characteristics, teachers' group level as well as individual level performances. In the study, strong leadership assume that principal can be supportive and foster participation for teachers, can develop clear goals and policies and hold accountable for better teaching strategy outcomes. The strong leadership is found associated with high organizational effectiveness, strong organizational culture, positive principal-teachers relationship, participation in decision, high teacher esprit and professionalism, less teacher disengagement and hindrance, more teacher job satisfaction and commitment. Thus, supporting that principal's decision making is critical factor for teacher performance at crucial aspects as focusing on decision making ways and performance of principals and teachers, in the context of secondary schools in Pakistan. Examining potential of certain active collaboration around instructional matters to enhance the quality of teaching performance. The research methodology will use specific situation item questionnaire with preferred style for making decision concerning siutuation being measured on continuum with alternatives of decision making, with different desired decision making style. These preferred styles appeared to be influenced by the personal skills and experiences which allowed teachers to feel they could have some constructive input into the decision. Recent research on effective school strategies states that school personnel must be part of decisions affecting schools and that leaders must be strong decision makers. Effective schools research suggests that principal's decision making style is crucial factor in teacher performance. However, studies have directly examined teachers' perspectives on principals' everyday characteristics and the impact of decision styles on teachers. The data will be drawn from qualitative study of about 50 principals and 50 teachers in Pakistan secondary institution. Open, ended survey questionnaires will be design and crafted in order to provide secondary school teachers with better opportunity to identify and describe in detail decision making styles of principals that enhances in classroom instructions on teacher related performances. Using of Pakistan related informative data to examine relationships of decision making styles of principals and performances of teachers. There can be alternative methodology for acquiring an understanding of teacher performances from within principal's decision making styles as to be described and illustrated within the above methods mentioned.

Five point scaling system (Likert Scale)

Oftentimes information gathered involves the use of Likert scales. As individuals attempt to quantify constructs which are not directly measurable they oftentimes use multiple-item scales and summated ratings to quantify the construct of interest. The Likert scale is noted by Rensis Likert in (1931), who described the technique for the assessment of attitudes, McIver and Carmines (1981) describe the Likert scale as set of items, composed of approximately an equal number of favorable and unfavorable statements concerning the attitude object, is given to a group of subjects as being asked to respond to each statement in terms of their own degree of agreement or disagreement. Thus, instructed to select one of five responses: strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, or strongly disagree. The specific responses to the items are

combined so that individuals with the most favorable attitudes will have the highest scores while individuals with the least favorable attitudes will have the

lowest scores (pp. 22-23). When using Likert-type scales it is imperative to calculate and report Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability for any scales or subscales one may be using. The analysis of the data then must use these summated scales or subscales and not individual items, the reliability of the items is at best probably low and at worst unknown.

Literature Review Method

Literature reviews were written based on the identified primary reference source and additional critically appraised journal articles/guidance. Recommendations are needed and are formulated based on the combined scientific evidence to inform the development of the final guidance document and recommendation will assign category based on volume or quality of evidence associated to the recommendation.

Case Study and Survey Questionnaire Method

There will be process of inducting research paradigm using case study approach and analysis from specifying research oriented questions as features will imply to problem definition and construct validation, as unique to the inductive, case oriented process. Research process description could be highly iterative and is being linked to data. Examination of survey testing revealing paradox, testing is one way to evaluate whether questionnairecauses problems for interviewers or respondents and survey reports to provide information about whether questionnaires are to be tested and, if so, how and with what outcomes as serving in intended purpose and lead to improved survey questionnaires. The case study methods have seen extensive application in research, case study approach refers to a group of methods which emphasize qualitative analysis (Yin, 1984). Data to be collected from principals and teachers as research respondents, case study approach seeks to understand the problem being investigated, provides the opportunity to ask penetrating questions and to capture richness of research behavior, but the conclusions drawn may be specific to the particular respondents studied and may not be generalizable. Yin (1984) suggests that case studies are appropriate where the objective is to study contemporary events, and where it is not necessary to control behavioral events or variables. Yin further suggests case studies are appropriate if the objective of the research is to explore previously un-researched subject, whereas multiple case designs are desirable when the intent of the research is description, theory building, or theory testing. The survey approach refers to group of methods which emphasize quantitative analysis, where data for number of subjects are collected through methods such as questionnaires, interviews, or from statistics. By studying representative sample of organizations, the survey approach seeks to discover relationships that are common across organizations and hence to provide generalizable statements about the object of study. Yet, for survey to succeed in elucidating relationships or even in providing descriptive statistics, it must contain all the right questions asked in the right way.


Likert, R. (1931) A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology. New York: Columbia University Press

McIver, J. P., & Carmines, E. G. (1981) Unidimensional scaling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill

Yin R K (1984) Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, California.

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