October 20, 2009

Contemporary problems on Southeast Asian countries higher education system

Brief introduction

The expanded and ambitious agenda for educational systems, especially so for the developing nations of Southeast Asia. The notion of education as a public enterprise is well enshrined in Southeast Asia. Nations such as Malaysia experienced rapid development over the past 20 years and this is evident in their educational systems, country has developed human and physical infrastructure to provide education to their youth. The capacity of educational systems to meet the new demands of this global age via traditional means is in question. Can Southeast Asia's education systems meet the demand of an expanding student population and satisfy rising expectations for educational quality? The answer to question remains open. Without a doubt, however, public educational systems in the region are under increasing pressure to attain the global educational ideal. The rising middle class in Southeast Asia sees what kind of education Western nations provide and are demanding similar quality for their children. Thus, it is parents who are applying the pressure for educational reform. Parents with sufficient resources in Malaysia no longer think twice about sending their children abroad for an education that more closely fits their perception of the global educational ideal. The traditionally high value placed on education in Asia makes economic sacrifice for the young natural choice among the middle class

Literature review

'Transnational education' refers to education 'in which the learners are located in country different from the one where the awarding institution is based' (UNESCO and Council of Europe, 2000). The demand in South East Asia was high, especially in Malaysia, growth is set to continue, with the Global Alliance for Transnational Education (2000) estimating that demand for transnational higher education in Asian countries will rise to more than 480,000 students by 2020. Whether delivered through offshore branch campuses, twinning arrangements or international distance education, transnational education increasingly relies on information and communications technology to facilitate the routine crossing of borders by information, staff and educational materials (Bates and de los Santos, 1997; Blight et al., 1999). Thus, South East Asian international students are often characterized by Western lecturers as being less self directed learners who defer more to the authority of the teacher and prefer more structured learning environments (Ballard and Clanchy, 1997; Biggs, 1997; Kelly and Tak, 1998; Smith and Smith, 1999), that students from South East Asian countries may not be so comfortable with such innovations (Gunawardena, 1998; Jensen et al., 1997). There illustrate some of the ways in which transnational institutions in South East Asia are responding to the challenges brought about by the use of educational technologies to enhance flexible learning. There were common themes in the experiences of these institutions. Firstly, institutions' students expected to provide large volumes of information and expected that recall of this information would be assessed in examinations. Secondly, institutions consciously seeking to change students' behavior by using educational technology to encourage self directed learning. The objective to bring local practices into line with teaching and learning practices in the awarding university's home country, to introduce what were seen as 'modern' approaches. Educators understood the difference as old versus new rather than local versus foreign. They perceived the foreign institutions as having more resources and therefore being more advanced, both technologically and pedagogically.

Research objective

- Study on contemporary problems on Southeast Asian countries' higher education system

- The application of higher education systems of Malaysia

- To carry out literature review on Southeast Asian countries higher education system specifically as adopted by Malaysia as part of Southeast Asia

- The pros and cons of education system and how it affect Malaysia and its education system

- Study on barriers and opportunities in education professionalism

- Application of research methods adopted in Malaysia based practice for education system

- Recognize educational policy, technology and self-directed learning

Research methodology

Case study analysis will be the core method in this research application as it implies to precise encounter of higher education system as known in Malaysia. The other core method will be critical assessment of preliminary literature concerning Southeast Asia in terms of education systems and other relative points such as the eexamination of certain context of educational change in Southeast Asia. In particular, research will explore impact of changing global educational ideal, multiculturalism, and technological innovation on the purposes and practices of schooling in the region. Argues that the unprecedented pace and scope of change in the region require an approach to educational reform rather than simply the capacity to implement new reform policies. Discusses how the concept of learning organization might inform the role of system leaders in fostering educational change in Malaysia perspective.

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