The contribution of rural women to the family household
Research seeks to spell out nature and source of biases, attempt to provide pointers on how research could be corrected and fill in some research gaps. When pervasive poverty and lack of access to modern conveniences are taken into account, women who do not work in the market in fact devote much time to domestic activities. The need to engage in comprehensive literature search and case utilization of several authors or proponents in various academically reviewed articles and journals having in relative information contents pertaining to women contribution in family household along with Omani views as possible. Preliminary literature is of ideal factor for research success upon meeting in objectives and questions inclined in research. The critical assessment and appraisal of literature studies concerning contributions of rural Omani women to family household along with research methodology that accounts for identifying assumptions and understanding of several responses as deemed vital for research paradigm to take into a positive note.
1. What constitutes of women in family context? In today's time how is women treated in a family household? Discuss
2. Are there effective roles of rural women in Omani household as of the present? If yes, what are these roles?
3. What are several contributions of rural women to the family household? For example, referring to Omani family perspectives and in general
4. What is meant by women contribution? Does it imply to social and economic status of the household? Why?
5. How is rural women in Oman functions?, along with such family household orientation and societal motives? Explain
Middle East women have been portrayed as silent shadows or helpless victims of suppressive customs and traditions who are unable to organize groups on their own and for themselves and are prevented from entering fully into the family sector of life. There were explosion in research and publication that fully acknowledge women as people of their own right. Rural women in Middle East have come to be seen as political and economic actors who fend for themselves and struggle and reflect on their lives and the future of their societies. Through their actions, the boundary that defines what is traditional cultural behavior and what is contemporary is often blurred (Chatty, 2000 p. 242). The patriarchal state fails to recognize the transformative power of women's contemporary behavior, which pushes the definition of accepted behavior beyond that found in official documents and local and regional legislation, with their largely male audience. There has been industrial growth coupled with economic reforms in rural areas has created growing demand for rural women's labor, though at lower wages than those earned by men. There suggests that households may contribute to the observed male/female market wage differential through their influence in the formation of individuals' reservation wages. Under circumstances, external employment opportunities, while no doubt serving to increase the household's overall level of income, be less effective mechanism for raising the economic status of women. On the contrary, market wage signals may serve to reinforce, rather than to ameliorate differences that arise within family household. Oman's labor market, women's participation has progressively increased from mere 3.2 in 1993 to almost 18 percent currently (IFC, 2005; Ministry of National Economy, 2003; ILO, 2003). The Omani women should equal to male counterparts in rights and duties without any form of discrimination. They also enjoy the right to participate in public affairs, gather and form associations, work and occupy public offices (Majlis A'Shura, 2004 p. 2). Generally, rural women are moving up, equal treatment are accomplished fact in family life. There is "heart warming truth that there civilized communities and progressive countries that give woman her rightful place in society and place her where she should be at par with her male colleague and Oman is one nation" (Al Emra'a, 2003 p. 13). Omani labor force structure is heavily male oriented as men are considered the main breadwinners of the family, thus are prioritized over women when seeking job. Many employers believe that women will leave work once they get married or have children and hence, are averse to recruiting them; those who are hired receive less training, promotional opportunities and generally earn less than men in similar jobs (IFC, 2005; Ministry of National Economy, 2003). The unequal treatment of women in spite of clear legal statements of equality has been tolerated due to the predominance of males in decision making positions together with the general female "legal illiteracy" about their rights (Ministry of National Economy, 2003; Ministry of Social Affairs, Labor and Voc. Training, 1999).
The case survey will be of empirical investigation that rural women in dual, earner families maintain responsibility for domestic tasks involving care of home and children as such survey questions are duly addressed namely: Is there variability in extent of home responsibilities among rural women in dual-earner families? Has there been significant change in the responsibilities in past years of Omani household? What correlates of observed contribution variability of these women? And so on and so forth, Research finding might indicate substantial variability as well as decrease in extent of home responsibilities among women in dual-earner Omani families that correlate race, place of residence as well as earned income of the women themselves and their husbands. There continues to little appreciation of unemployment, poverty and destitution so that any serious attempt to alleviate conditions or prevent further aggravation would require particular focus on rural women of poor family households. The accuracy of statistics serving as principal data input in the framing of development policies, is severely impaired by biases which lead to an undercounting of women as workers and as those available for work. The study participants will be contacted by the researcher explaining purpose of the study and sought permission to be interviewed to ensure confidentiality of participants, no names or organizational references will be used. The survey interview will about 60 minutes and follows survey guide purposely develop to solicit responses pertaining to roles and functions in family household, socialization patterns, personal trait, family role conflict and perceptions of the challenges facing working and professional women in Omani society (Al-Lamky, 1998). The interviews will not be recorded in order to encourage openness but, notes will be taken during interviews and be transcribed by the researcher.
Al Emra'a (2003), "The unfair sex", Al Emra'a, pp.13-14
Al-Lamky, A. (1998), "Narratives of Omani women in leadership positions: a view from above", Proceedings of Women in Management Conference, Dubai, UAE
Chatty, D. (2000). Women Working in Oman: Individual Choice and Cultural Constrains. International Journal Middle East Studies (2000), 32:2:241-254 Cambridge University Press
IFC (2005), Gender Entrepreneurship Markets Country Brief - Oman, Sultanate of Oman, Sultanate of Oman
ILO (2003), Meeting the Employment Challenge in the Sultanate of Oman: Report of the ILO Mission on Employment and Training Policy, Sultanate of Oman
Majlis A'Shura (2004), "Omani women contribution to modern development of the state institutions - facts and figures", Majlis A'Shura
Ministry of National Economy (2003), Oman Human Development Report, Sultanate of Oman
Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training (1999), Wade al Mara'afi Oman (The Status of Women in Oman)