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Sample Research Proposal on Design and Methodologies

Research Abstract

This report shall discuss the research methods available for the study and what is applicable for it to use. Likewise, the report shall present how the research will be implemented and how to come up with pertinent findings.

 

Basically, the emergence of alternative treatments, from the use of herbal supplements to different types of therapies, has increasingly gained recognition and acceptance from the public as more and more people resort to these types of treatment in their attempt to heal physical, emotional and spiritual ailments. This growing acknowledgment and recognition have largely contributed to the growing popularity of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in the United States. Something about "alternative" medicine or the so-called "holistic" approach, acupuncture or hypnosis, therapy, nutrition, herbs, or homeopathy; a story about someone who seemed hopeless but who is now well; have all contributed to the growing popularity of alternative approaches of treatment.

 

In this regard, this research report suggests effective methods to determine the effectiveness of oral vitamin preparations in primary care, and whether subsequent Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, neuropathy or cerebellar damage is delayed/prevented.

Definition of Terms

Medication -- A medication is a licensed drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition..

 

Neuropathy -- Disease of nervous system: a disease or disorder, especially a degenerative one that affects the nervous system.

 

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome -- brain damage in alcoholics; a form of brain damage occurring in long-term alcoholics that results from severe nutritional deficiencies.

 

Research Design

There are three kinds of research methods, correlational, experimental and descriptive. (Walliman and Baiche, 2001) The correlational kind of research method is used due to ethical problems with experiments. Moreover, it is also used due to practical problems with experiments. Moreover, inferring causality from correlation not actually impossible, but very difficult. This mode of study is widely applicable, cheap, and usually ethical. Nonetheless, there exist some "third variable" issues and measurement problems. The correlational research refers to studies in which the purpose is to discover relationships between variables through the use of correlational statistics (r). The square of a correlation coefficient yields the explained variance (r-squared). A correlational relationship between two variables is occasionally the result of an outside source, so we have to be careful and remember that correlation does not necessarily tell us about cause and effect. If a strong relationship is found between two variables, using an experimental approach can test causality.

 

On the other hand, the experimental method is the only method that can be used to establish cause-and-effect relationships. (Creswell, 1994) That is, it is the only one that can be used to explain the bases of behaviour and mental processes. In this method, the subjects are split into two (or more) groups. One group, called the experimental group gets the treatment that the researcher believes will cause something to happen (this treatment is formally called the independent variable). The experimental and control groups are compared on some variable that is presumed to reflect the effects of the treatment, or outcome. This is formally referred to as the dependent variable.

 

And lastly, the descriptive research method uses observation and surveys. In this method, it is possible that the study would be cheap and quick. It could also suggest unanticipated hypotheses (Saunders, et al., 2003). Nonetheless, it would be very hard to rule out alternative explanations and especially infer causations. Thus, this study will use the descriptive approach.  This descriptive type of research will utilize observations in the study.  To illustrate the descriptive type of research, Creswell (1994) will guide the researcher when he stated: Descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition. The purpose of employing this method is to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomena. The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire of the researcher to obtain first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study.

 

The research described in this document is based fundamentally on quantitative research methods. This permits a flexible and iterative approach. During data gathering the choice and design of methods are constantly modified, based on ongoing analysis. This allows investigation of important new issues and questions as they arise, and allows the investigators to drop unproductive areas of research from the original research plan.

 

To complement and supplement the quantitative approach, a qualitative approach on the literature of oral vitamins preparation in health care shall be conducted. This will allow for a comparative approach based on the findings of the study and the previous empirical researches on oral vitamin preparations in primary care, and whether subsequent Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, neuropathy or cerebellar damage is delayed/prevented.

 

 

Data-Gathering Method

This study basically intends to investigate the use of effective oral vitamin preparation as treatment on patients that have been experiencing Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, neuropathy or cerebellar damage. It will include the discussion on the factors that affects the medication process, the current treatments offered by the conventional medical practitioners, the differences in the treatment, the level of effectiveness of oral medication and how this process can be effectively used to help individuals dealing with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, neuropathy and cerebellar damageSpecifically, the study intends to identify the effects of oral medication and the other medication on past patients and assess their effectiveness in dealing with the syndrome or health illness.

 

The primary source of data will come from a questionnaire and interviews conducted by the researcher on past patients. The respondents of the study will be randomly selected. The interviews and the survey shall cover in detail the experiences and perspectives of the respondents on the oral vitamin preparations in primary care, the problems that they have experienced, the effects of different medication strategies, the strengths and weaknesses of oral vitamin preparations and their proposed interventions.

 

The secondary sources of data will come from published articles from medical journals, thesis and related studies on oral medications and symptoms prevention. These previous researches shall serve as a comparison on the findings of the study.

 

Database and Respondents of the Study

For the database of this study, the researcher will gather data, collate published studies from different local and foreign universities and articles from social science journals; and make a content analysis of the collected documentary and verbal material.  Afterwards, the researcher will summarize all the information, make a conclusion based on the null hypotheses posited and provide insightful recommendations on the dealing with organizational management.

 

The general population for this study will be composed of past members of patients totalling to 30 respondents. The researcher shall also provide interviews for medical pratitioners and the patients.

 

The survey will consist of three parts: the demographic profile of the respondents, the effectiveness oral vitamin preparations in Health Care Institutions.

 

            Part I of the survey shall determine the age, gender, civil status, educational attainment and the employment status of the respondents.

 

            Part II shall assess the effectiveness of oral vitamin preparations in treating patients. It shall illustrate the different techniques and treatments that a patient goes through, the perceived effectiveness of the treatment in terms of the health stability of the patients. Further, the oral vitamin preparations shall be evaluated in lieu with its ability to treat the patients in their health illness.

 

Instruments to be Used

To determine the effects of oral vitamin preparations in the treatment of the health illness, the researcher will prepare a questionnaire and a set of guide questions for the interview that will be asked to the intended respondents. The respondents will grade each statement in the survey-questionnaire using a Likert scale with a five-response scale wherein respondents will be given five response choices (Saunders, et al., 2003). The equivalent weights for the answers will be:

 

Range                                                            Interpretation

                        4.50 – 5.00                                        Strongly Agree

3.50 – 4.49                                        Agree

2.50 – 3.49                                        Uncertain

1.50 – 2.49                                        Disagree         

0.00 – 1.49                                        Strongly Disagree

 

Administration of the Instrument

The researcher will exclude the five respondents who will be initially used for the validation of the instrument.  The researcher will also tally, score and tabulate all the responses in the provided interview questions. Moreover, the interview shall be using a structured interview. It shall consist of a list of specific questions and the interviewer does not deviate from the list or inject any extra remarks into the interview process. The interviewer may encourage the interviewee to clarify vague statements or to further elaborate on brief comments. Otherwise, the interviewer attempts to be objective and tries not to influence the interviewer's statements. The interviewer does not share his/her own beliefs and opinions. The structured interview is mostly a "question and answer" session.

 

Statistical Treatment of the Data

When all of the survey questionnaires will have been collected, the researcher will use statistics to analyse all the data.

 

The statistical formulae to be used in the survey questionnaire will be the following:

1.       Percentage – to determine the magnitude of the responses to the questionnaire.

where:  n – number of responses

                                                                        N – total number of respondents

2.       Weighted Mean

where: f – weight given to each response

                                                                        x – number of responses

                                                                        xt – total number of responses

The researcher will be assisted by the Statistical Package for Social Science in coming up with the statistical analysis for this study.

 

Validation of Data

For validation purposes, the researcher will initially submit a sample of the set of survey questionnaires and after approval; the survey will be conducted to five respondents. After the questions were answered, the researcher will ask the respondents for any suggestions or any necessary corrections to ensure further improvement and validity of the instrument.  The researcher will again examine the content of the interview questions to find out the reliability of the instrument.  The researchers will exclude irrelevant questions and will change words that would be deemed difficult by the respondents to much simpler terms.

 

The literature involved in this study shall likewise be limited to the scholarly articles on recognized journals and books that have been published. In the process, statements must be concurred by at least three authors to be rendered valid.

 

Originality and Limitations of Data

            This study shall be conducted based on a survey questionnaire and interview sessions that will be conducted by the researcher among patients. The result of the survey and the interview are first-hand information and data that will be validated and analyzed using the review of related literature. The literature are second-hand or secondary data where previous scholars shall confirm or dispute the findings of the study. The data is limited to patients who go through to oral medication. Moreover, the researcher will not have a continuous study on the respondents so that whatever answer they may give will be conclusive without further verification. Also, since the medication had been conducted way before the interview and the survey, there might be lapses on the memory of the respondents.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, this report provides the explanation on the methodical procedures that the researcher followed to collect, analyze and validate the data for this study.  The findings, conclusions, and recommendations of this study will be derived from the guidelines presented in this paper for the purpose of producing a responsible and thrust worthy research findings.


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