With more than 3 billion of the world's population living in cities, and accelerating urban expansion arising from globalization, population growth and migration, today's urban settings are redefining the field of public health. The complex dynamics of cities, with their concentration of the poorest and most vulnerable, pose an urgent challenge to the health community. While retaining fidelity to the core principles of disease prevention and control, major adjustments are needed in systems and approaches to effectively reach those with the greatest health risks within today's urban environment.
Controlling and preventing HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other diseases are among the key global health priorities, particularly in poor urban settings. The challenge for infectious disease control in slums and informal settlements is not in identifying which interventions work, but rather ensuring that slum dwellers are captured in health statistics that define disease epidemiology, and are provided opportunities equal to the rest of the population to access proven interventions.
Background of the Study
Global databases consistently demonstrate the higher incidence, prevalence, mortality and burden of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other communicable diseases in developing countries.
According to the work of Pillay (2004) entitled: Using GIS to spatially portray the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis and its demographic consequences in selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, 32.8 % HIV and TB cases was recorded in South Africa from the estimated 180 507 TB cases against a TB incidence of 419/100,000 population. The analysis goes with more numbers and statistical data, but what the author found out was that the spatial dynamics of the problem can be analyzed using the GIS techniques via choropleth mapping of HIV/AIDS and TB prevalence data. He added that whatever the emerging patterns found in the proliferation of the diseases will give further researchers guidelines and framework to possibly trace the trend between the HIV/AIDS and TB relationship. Furthermore, some researchers established a close connection between TB and HIV/AIDS that each of them influenced the activation and reactivation of disease to each other.
There are significant impacts which these diseases have to society. The diseases like this will have cultural, social and economic effects to one country with great number of victims. According to Indusa in his work The Use of GIS in Mapping, Analysis, and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Occurrence Patterns, there is a growing consciousness that the 40 million people estimated to be currently infected with HIV will eventually die of AIDS or AIDS related illness and that "a set of inter-related social, economic and social crisis will increase unless effective action is pursued. For Indusa (2002), the decline in labor productivity brought about by workers' frequent absences and loss of experienced workers are significant economic impact while HIV/AIDS's epidemiological impact is significant, yet, the social impact is more frustrating. In order to control and prevent the further transmission of HIV/AIDS there are considerable social actions that were made that resulted to the high number of orphans and some children are absorbed by the extended family members.
Statement of the Problem
The study seeks to answer the following problems:
1. What is the current status of HIV/AIDS globally?
2. What is the direct correlation between HIV/AIDS?
3. How HIV/AIDS and TB does affect each other and vice-versa?
4. How GIS does contribute to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and TB?
5. How GIS help establish the spatial autocorrelation between HIV/AIDS and TB?
The general objective of this study is to find the spatial autocorrelation between HIV/AIDS and TB. Thus, in order to fulfill this goal some particular objectives are needed to be identified such as:
1. To assess the current status of HIV/AIDS globally.
2. To draw a clear line between the relationship of AIDS and TB
3. To find the role and importance of GIS in identifying the spatial autocorrelation between HIV/AIDS
There are many researches about HIV/AIDS and TB. Using different approaches and epidemiological apparatuses and instruments in determining the cause-effect relationship of the disease and to come up with effective alternative and ways to control and prevent the proliferation of the disease yet there is no ample study on finding the relationship between AIDS/HIV and TB. Some researchers had pronounced the interrelationship between AIDS and TB yet, in different field of study. This study is significant in the sense that the new technological apparatus which is GIS will be the tool in identifying and supporting the claim of previous studies declaiming the direct relationship between HIV/AIDS and TB. This will help the health sector create more effective programs to prevent the rampant spread of the disease.
The use of GIS is the primary tool for this study. Using the qualitative and quantitative approaches in research will help uncover the hidden clues about the relationship between HIV/AIDS and TB.
Website of international agencies, organization, including national and regional non-governmental organizations known for their work in the areas of urban health, communicable disease control and prevention, and urban development were examined and links to potentially useful material.
Suggested references were solicited from colleagues working in the area of urban health. In addition, information from colleague involved in field implementation of relevant projects was obtained through face-to-face, telephone or electronic interviews.
If this research will be approved by the panel of inspectors, the study will go according to the desire dateline. For the first two months of the research will be devoted on gathering literatures, conduct surveys and interviews. Following the consumed two months, will be further gathering of data and information. This time, conducting a case study, case observation, field observation and research and further interviews will be held. The next two months will be use to collecting the gathered information and data sheets and analysis will be made after the said exercise. The last few moths of the research will be preparation for the formal writing of the data and analysis and for the final presentation of the whole research study.
The expected result of this study is that towards the end of the research, we may be able to underline and draw a clear connection between the HIV/AIDS and TB. In this regards, the research expected to fulfill its entire task from gathering data and information, to analysis and presentation and that all the objective and problems stated in the first chapters will be answered clearly.
Very important in this study is the fulfillment of providing a clear answer to the noble aim of this study. Moreover, to prove the claim of the study that there is a preexisting direct connection between the two communicable and deadly diseases: HIV/AIDS and TB.
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