August 5, 2008




            Enzymes are protein-based molecules that speed up the chemical reactions in living organisms. Enzymes act as a catalyst for specific chemical reactions in order to convert a particular set of reactants into particular products. Enzymes are very important in different industries. There are two categories of industrial enzyme classes: commodity enzymes and speciality enzymes. Enzymes are distributed according to substrate as protein hydrolysing (59%), carbohydrate hydrolysing (28%), lipid hydrolysing (3%) and speciality (10%). Speciality includes analytical, pharma and research. Enzymes are processed for textile, grain, food cleaning, animal feeds, diagnostic waste management and others.

            Annually, industrial enzymes are increasing by volume (10-15%) and increasing in value (4-5%). Different industrial enzyme processes are to account for this growth. For example, industrial enzymes are subjected to various starch conversions, biosynthesis and nitrile conversions including acrylamide and nicotinamide. The key characteristics of these process allows for continuous process and enzyme reuse, for actual reversion of normal equilibrium through low water activity solvent system, for enzyme denaturation and for uncomplicated product recovery.

            In nitrile biotransformations, the world's supply of acrylamide is synthesized biologically through the use of a whole cell catalyst. This catalyst is an engineered Rhodococcus strain that contains high levels of enzyme nitrile hydratase (NHase). Rhodococcus is a genus of aerobic and gram-positive bacteria. Its non-sporulation and non-motility characteristics make Rhodococcus a scientifically beneficial system.

            The reasons for this include the complete sequencing of strains that enables catabolism of a wide range of compounds. The genetic and the catabolic multiplicity of Rhodococcus are not brought by large bacterial chromosome but of the existence of three large linear plasmids. These plasmids are to account for the relatively fast growth rate and simplistic developmental cycle. There are at least 28 existing species of Rhodococcus.     

The recombinant Rhodococcus had several contributions to production of enzymes whether commodity or speciality. The production of enzymes is central to modern biotechnological industries. However, Rhodococcus is not well characterised. If scientists are going to use recombinant Rhodococcus to produce enzymes there may be necessary cautions to undertake. To wit, enzyme molecules are too complicated to be synthesized by chemical procedures alone.      

There is a drive then to investigate enzymes production of Rhodococcus. Enzymes are often expressed in tiny amounts and they are often mixed-up with many other enzymes and proteins. Further, recombinant Rhodococcus may be likewise difficult to cultivate and they may create undesirable results. The primary purpose of the research is to conduct an experimental study on determining the processes of enzymes production in Rhodococcus.


Research Aim and Objectives

            The study primarily aims to explore in-depth the production of enzymes of Rhodococcus and presents the benefits and risks in the process. In carrying this aim, the following objectives will be realised:

·        Assessment and evaluation of the gains and hazards of the process of enzyme production of Rhodococcus

·        Review related literatures regarding enzymes production in bacteria particularly of Rhodococcus

·        Conduct a laboratory experiment to establish the effective practices of enzymes production of Rhodococcus

·        Generate pertinent conclusions and actionable recommendations


Research Questions

            This study will seek to address the following questions:

  1. What are the stimulating effects of several substrates [to be used] upon the production of enzymes in Rhodococcus?
  2. What are the different enzymatic properties does the Rhodococcus exhibits?
  3. What are the different enzymes that the Rhodococcus could create or cultivate? Are there any new enzymes produced?
  4. What are the different bacterial species to be used? What are the differences in enzymes production level of these Rhodococcus?
  5. What are the factors that affect the enzyme cultivation in Rhodococcus?
  6. What would be the benefits of enzyme production in Rhodococcus? What are the possible by-products of enzymatic activity in Rhodococcus?



            The experimental will be used to establish the cause-and-effect relationship. There will be independent and dependent variables. The primary source of data will come from the results of laboratory experiments to be conducted by the researcher. The researcher will design the experiment processes with the help of the instructor and results will be subjected to statistical analysis. The secondary sources will come from published articles in science journals, magazines and newspapers, books, Internet and related studies. The researcher will make a documentary and verbal material analysis.                           



'Chemical Functions Definition' 2005, Procter&Gamble, retrieved on 14 February 2008 from


'Definition of Enzyme' 2008, MedicineNet, Inc., retrieved on 14 February 2008 from


'Enzymes in Industry', BTY 323 Lectures 15, 16, retrieved on 14 February 2008 from,1,BTY323  Lectures 15, 16  Enzymes in Industry.


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